Quantizing Time

COVID-19 information for PI Residents and Visitors

Conference Date: 
Monday, June 14, 2021 (All day) to Friday, June 18, 2021 (All day)
Scientific Areas: 
Quantum Foundations

This conference will now move ahead virtually.

Whatever the final theory of quantum gravity turns out to be, it will need to reconcile the incongruent ways in which time appears in quantum mechanics and general relativity. Quantum mechanics treats time as a classical background parameter, which is different than the way other observables, such as position and momentum, are treated. In stark contrast, general relativity promotes time to a dynamical quantity in the sense that Einstein’s equations relate how clocks behave in relative motion or differing gravitational fields. The aim of this conference is to discuss the full consequences of treating time as a quantum phenomena in light of the recent progress on information-theoretic and operational descriptions of time as quantum observable. Topics discussed will include indefinite causal structures, the Page-Wootters formalism, relational quantum mechanics, quantum reference frames, the problem of time, and experimental implications.

Registration for this event will open shortly.



  • Emily Adlam, Basic Research Community for Physics
  • Abhay Ashtekar, Pennsylvania State University
  • Veronika Baumann, Universita della Svizzera Italiana
  • Esteban Castro-Ruiz, Universite Libre de Bruxelles
  • Marina Cortes, University of Lisbon
  • Bianca Dittrich, Perimeter Institute
  • Laurent Freidel, Perimeter Institute
  • Rodolfo Gambini, Universidad de Montevideo
  • Philipp Hoehn, University College London
  • Claus Kiefer, University of Cologne
  • Lorenzo Maccone, University of Pavia
  • Flavio Mercati, University of Naples Federico II
  • Renato Renner, ETH Zurich
  • Carlo Rovelli, Centre de Physique Theorique
  • Lee Smolin, Perimeter Institute
  • Robert Spekkens, Perimeter Institute
  • Mischa Woods, ETH Zurich

Scientific Organizers:

  • Flaminia Giacomini, Perimeter Institute
  • Lucien Hardy, Perimeter Institute
  • Achim Kempf, University of Waterloo
  • Alexander Smith, Dartmouth College