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- Majorana Ghosts: From topological superconductor to the origin of neutrino mass, three generations and their mass mixing

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13050052

The existence of three generations of neutrinos and their mass mixing is a deep mystery of our universe. On the other hand, Majorana's elegant work on the real solution of Dirac equation predicted the existence of Majorana particles in our nature, unfortunately, these Majorana particles have never been observed. In this talk, I will begin with a simple 1D condensed matter model which realizes a T^2=-1 time reversal symmetry protected superconductors and then discuss the physical property of its boundary Majorana zero modes. It is shown that these Majorana zero modes realize a T^4=-1 time reversal doubelets and carry 1/4 spin. Such a simple observation motivates us to revisit the CPT symmetry of those ghost particles--neutrinos by assuming that they are Majorana zero modes. Interestingly, we find that a topological Majorana particle will realize a P^4=-1 parity symmetry as well. It even realizes a nontrivial C^4=-1 charge conjugation symmetry, which is a big surprise from a usual perspective that the charge conjugation symmetry for a Majorana particle is trivial. Indeed, such a C^4=-1 charge conjugation symmetry is a Z_2 gauge symmetry and its spontaneously breaking leads to the origin of neutrino mass. We further attribute the origin of three generations of neutrinos to three distinguishable types of topological Majorana zero modes protected by CPT symmetry. Such an assumption leads to an S3 symmetry in the generation space and uniquely determines the mass mixing matrix with no adjustable parameters! In the absence of CP violation, we derive \theta_12=32degree, \theta_23=45degree and \theta_13=0degree, which is intrinsically closed to the current experimental results. We further predict an exact mass ratio of the three mass eigenstate with m_1/m_3~m_2/m_3=3/\sqrt{5}.

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