Hexagon functions and six-gluon scattering in planar N=4 super-Yang-Mills



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13060008

Abstract

Hexagon functions are a class of iterated integrals, depending on three variables (dual conformal cross ratios) which have the correct branch cut structure and other properties to describe the scattering of six gluons in planar N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory. We classify all hexagon
functions through transcendental weight five, using the coproduct for their Hopf algebra iteratively, which amounts to a set of first-order differential equations.  As an example, the three-loop remainder function is a particular weight-six hexagon function, whose symbol was determined
previously.

The differential equations can be integrated numerically for generic values of the cross ratios, or analytically in certain kinematics limits, including the near-collinear and multi-Regge
limits.  These limits allow us to impose constraints from the operator product expansion and multi-Regge factorization directly at the function level, and thereby to fix uniquely a set of Riemann-Zeta-valued constants that could not be fixed at the level of the symbol. The near-collinear limits agree precisely with recent predictions by Basso, Sever and Vieira based on integrability.  The multi-Regge limits agree with a factorization formula of Fadin and Lipatov, and determine three constants entering the impact factor at this order. We plot the three-loop remainder function for various slices of the Euclidean region of positive cross ratios, and compare it to the two-loop one.  For large ranges of the cross ratios, the ratio of the three-loop to the two-loop remainder function is relatively constant, and close to -7.