This series consists of weekly discussion sessions on foundations of quantum Theory and quantum information theory. The sessions start with an informal exposition of an interesting topic, research result or important question in the field. Everyone is strongly encouraged to participate with questions and comments.
In quanum physics, the von Neumann entropy usually arises in i.i.d settings, while single-shot settings are commonly characterized by smoothed min- or max-entropies. In this talk, I will discuss new results that give single-shot interpretations to the von Neumann entropy under appropriate conditions. I first present new results that give a single-shot interpretation to the Area Law of entanglement entropy in many-body physics in terms of compression of quantum information on the boundary of a region of space.
The role of coherence in quantum thermodynamics has been extensively studied in the recent years and it is now well-understood that coherence between different energy eigenstates is a resource independent of other thermodynamics resources, such as work. A fundamental remaining open question is whether the laws of quantum mechanics and thermodynamics allow the existence a "coherence distillation machine", i.e. a machine that, by possibly consuming work, obtains pure coherent states from mixed states, at a nonzero rate.
I’ll describe a novel application for near-term quantum computers with 50-70 qubits: namely, generating cryptographic random bits, whose randomness can be certified even if the quantum computer is untrusted (e.g., has been backdoored by an adversary). Unlike schemes based on Bell inequality violation, ours requires only a single device able to solve classically hard sampling problems. Our protocol harvests the outputs of the sampling process and feeds them into a randomness extractor, while occasionally verifying the outputs using exponential classical time. I’ll also compare to the beau
For many optimal measurement problems of interest, the problem may be re-cast as a semi-definite program, for which efficient numerical techniques are available. Nevertheless, numerical solutions give limited insight into more general instances of the problem, and further, analytical solutions may be desirable when an optimised measurement appears as a sub-problem in a larger problem of interest.
When a particle is accelerated, as in a scattering event, it will radiate gravitons and, if electrically charged, photons. The infrared tail of the spectrum of this radiation has a divergence: an arbitrarily small amount of total energy is divided into an arbitrarily large number of radiated bosons.
[joint work with: Victor Albert, John Preskill (Caltech), Sepehr Nezami, Grant Salton, Patrick Hayden (Stanford University), and Fernando Pastawski (Freie Universität Berlin)]
Suppose the eigenvalue distributions of two matrices $M_1$ and $M_2$ are known. What is the eigenvalue distribution of the sum $M_1+M_2$? This problem has a rich pure mathematics history dating back to H. Weyl (1912) with many applications in various fields. Free probability theory (FPT) answers this question under certain conditions, which often involves some degree of randomness (disorder). We will describe FPT and show examples of its powers for the qualitative understanding (often approximations) of physical quantities such as density of states, and gapped vs.
When a system interacts with an environment with which it is initially uncorrelated, its evolution is described by a completely positive map. The common wisdom in the field of quantum information theory, however, is that when the system is initially correlated with the environment, the map describing its evolution may fail to be completely positive.
Port-based teleportation (PBT) is a variant of the well-known task of quantum teleportation in which Alice and Bob share multiple entangled states called "ports". While in the standard teleportation protocol using a single entangled state the receiver Bob has to apply a non-trivial correction unitary, in PBT he merely has to pick up the right quantum system at a port specified by the classical message he received from Alice. PBT has applications in instantaneous non-local computation and can be used to attack position-based quantum cryptography.
Several equivalent formulations of quantum error correction condition will be introduced. Subtleties arise
when the error correction conditions hold only approximately. We will discuss an equivalent formulation that is
robust to the approximation error. One can leverage this tool to derive the existence of approximate quantum
error correcting code at low energy subspace of CFT that reproduces aspects of the holographic quantum error
correcting code. Using the same tool, we observe that two operators with greatly differing complexity approximately