This series consists of talks in the areas of Cosmology, Gravitation and Particle Physics.
Observations of the Milky Way by the SPI/INTEGRAL satellite have confirmed the presence of a strong 511 KeV gamma-ray line emission from the bulge, which require an intense source of positrons in the galactic center. These observations are hard to account for by conventional astrophysical scenarios, whereas other proposals, such as light DM, face stringent constraints from the diffuse gamma-ray background. I will describe how light superconducting strings could be the source of the observed 511 KeV emission.
In this talk I will analyse the stochastic background of gravitational waves coming from a first order phase transition in the early universe. The signal is potentially detectable by the space interferometer LISA. I will present a detailed analytical model of the gravitational wave production by the collision of broken phase bubbles, together with analytical results for the gravitational wave power spectrum. Gravitational wave production by turbulence and magnetic fields will also be briefly discussed.
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Recent developments in the field of Numerical Relativity have not only provided key insights of binary black hole systems but also began influencing its future role. Undoubtedly one of the most important future drivers in the near future of the field will be its role as another element within the study of spectacular astrophysical phenomena involving strongly gravitation scenarios. Connecting (yet to be observed) gravitational waves with observations within the electromagnetic spectra will be one ultimate goal of this enterprise.
I will review relativistic quantum theory that is based on Wigner\'s unitary representations of the Poincare group, Dirac\'s forms of dynamics, and Newton-Wigner\'s definition of the position operator. Formulas will be derived that transform particle observables between different inertial reference frames. In the absence of interactions, these formulas coincide with Lorentz transformations from special relativity. However, when interaction is turned on, some deviations appear.
We study the effective field theory of inflation, i.e. the most general theory describing the fluctuations around a quasi de Sitter background, in the case of single field models. The scalar mode can be eaten by the metric by going to unitary gauge. In this gauge, the most general theory is built with the lowest dimension operators invariant under spatial diffeomorphisms, like g^{00} and K_{mu nu}, the extrinsic curvature of constant time surfaces.
I will review an old (Greenberg and Schweber, 1958) and undeservedly forgotten idea in quantum field theory. This idea allows one to reformulate QFT as a Hamiltonian theory of physical (rather than bare) particles and their direct interactions. The dressed particle approach is scattering-equivalent to the traditional one, however it doesn\'t require renormalization and may provide a valuable tool for calculations of wave functions of bound states and time evolution.
Many string theorists and cosmologists have recently turned their attention to building and testing string theory models of inflation. One of the main goals is to find novel features that could distinguish stringy models from their field theoretic counterparts. This is difficult because, in most examples, string theory is used to derived an effective theory operating at energies well below the string scale.
We introduce a formalism allowing us to localize a certain class of theories with an infinite number of derivatives (nonlocal), which include effective actions of string field theory. The number of degrees of freedom is finite and the Cauchy problem, Hamiltonian and quantization are all well-defined. As applications, the rolling tachyon of cubic string field theory and some cosmological toy models are considered.
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