This series covers all areas of research at Perimeter Institute, as well as those outside of PI's scope.
Black Hole Entropy is a well established concept and arises naturally once one realises that black holes are characterised by a temperature. Boltzmann established that entropy can be regarded as the logarithm of the density of states function. However, black hole uniqueness theorems appeared to indicate that black holes have no hair. I will describe a loophole in the no-hair theorems and how black holes can have an infinite set of charges related to "large" gauge transformations.
Global symmetries and gauge symmetries have played a crucial role in physics. The idea of duality demonstrates that gauge symmetries can be emergent and might not be fundamental. During the past decades it became clear that the circle of ideas about emergent gauge symmetries and duality is central in different branches of physics including Condensed Matter Physics, Quantum Field Theory, and Quantum Gravity. We will review these developments, which highlight the unity of physics.
Higher spin symmetries are gauge symmetries sourced by massless particles with spin greater than two. When coupled with diffeomorphism, they give rise to higher spin gravity. After a review on higher spin gravity, I will discuss its holography and its embedding in the string theory. Finally I will talk about some applications of higher spin symmetry, both in string theory and in QFT.
Hypermassive neutron stars (HMNS) can be briefly formed after a binary neutron star merger and are likely to be highly deformed and strongly oscillating. These oscillations may be seen as modulation of the associated short gamma-ray burst and could provide observational evidence for the HMNS phase. I will discuss the prospects for their detection and the important physical information that can be gained by their observation.
In this talk I review some of what we have learned from string theory about the criteria one needs for a quantum theory to be able to consistently couple to quantum gravity (the landscape) as opposed to one that looks consistent but cannot be consistently coupled to gravity (the swampland). Moreover, I review some of the cosmological implications of these conditions for our universe.
Topology illuminates properties of geometric spaces which are independent of scale. Scale-independent features of physical systems play an important role, for example when deducing the large-scale behavior from a small-scale description. After an introduction to basic topological ideas, I will discuss two joint results with Mike Hopkins, one an application to string theory and the other an application to condensed matter theory.
The Hubble constant remains one of the most important parameters in the cosmological model, setting the size and age scales of the Universe. Present uncertainties in the cosmological model including the nature of dark energy, the properties of neutrinos and the scale of departures from flat geometry can be constrained by measurements of the Hubble constant made to higher precision than was possible with the first generations of Hubble Telescope instruments.
Computing has had many fundamental platform shifts in its history, and each came shrouded with mystery, hype, and dazzling potential: Alan Turing's universal machines, Doug Engelbart's Dynamic Knowledge Repository, J.C.R. Licklider's Intergalactic Network, the development of the internet, and all the waves of personal computers. More recently, Web 1.0, Web 2.0, and now Web 3.0 have all been heralded with barely-working demos and baffling hype, only to quietly install and broadly distribute fundamental improvements to our everyday life, to our work, and to our society.
Embezzlement of entanglement is the (impossible) task of producing an entangled state from a product state via a local change of basis, when a suitable catalytic entangled state is available. The possibility to approximate this task was first observed by van Dam and Hayden in 2002. Since then, the phenomenon is found to play crucial roles in many aspects of quantum information theory. In this colloquium, we will explain various methods to embezzlement entanglement and explore applications (such as an extension to approximately violate other conservation laws, a Bell inequality that canno
Einstein is well known for his rejection of quantum mechanics in the form it emerged from the work of Heisenberg, Born and Schrodinger in 1926. Much less appreciated are the many seminal contributions he made to quantum theory prior to his final scientific verdict: that the theory was at best incomplete. In this talk I present an overview of Einstein’s many conceptual breakthroughs and place them in historical context. I argue that Einstein, much more than Planck, introduced the concept of quantization of energy in atomic mechanics.