Locally covariant quantum field theory (LCQFT) has proven to be a very successful framework for QFT on curved spacetimes. It is natural to ask, how far these ideas can be generalized and if one can learn something about quantum gravity, using LCQFT methods. In particular, one can use the relative Cauchy evolution to formulate the notion of background independence. Recently we have proven that background independence in this sense holds for effective quantum gravity, formulated as a perturbative QFT. Remarkably, the formalism of LCQFT can be extended to structures more general than spacetimes. The essential feature is the presence of the causal structure. An example application would be QFT on causal sets (work in progress).