We argue that the
scale-free spectrum that is observed in the cosmic microwave background is the
result of a phase transition in the early universe. The observed tilt of
the spectrum, which has been measured to be 0.04, is shown to be equal to the
anomalous scaling dimension of the correlation function. The phase
transition replaces inflation as the mechanism that produces this spectrum. The tilt further indicates that there is a fundamental small length scale in
nature that we have not yet observed in any other way.