The Tail that Wags the Dog: Observational Constraints on Dark Matter Halos in Nearby Galaxies

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The standard cosmological framework explains an impressive range of large-scale astrophysical phenomena, but an agreement between its predictions and the properties of the dark matter halos of nearby galaxies has not been established. In this talk, I will highlight some key observables that constrain galaxy structure and some key differences between cosmological predictions and halo properties inferred from these measurements. I will also discuss proposed 'observational' solutions to some of these discrepancies, such as the role of coherent non-circular motions in spiral galaxies and the measured abundance of gas-rich, starless halos in the nearby Universe.