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Polarisation tomography of macro- and mesoscopic quantum states of light

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We report an experiment on reconstructing the quantum state of bright (macroscopic) polarization-squeezed light generated in a birefringent (polarization-maintaining) fibre due to the Kerr nonlinearity. The nonlinearity acts on both H and V polarization components, producing quadrature squeezing; by controlling the phase shift between the H and V components one can make the state squeezed in any Stokes observable. The tomography is performed by measuring histograms for a series of Stokes observables, and the resulting histograms (tomograms) are processed in a way similar to the classical 3D Radon transformation. At the output, we obtain the polarization Q-function, which in the case of large photon numbers coincides with the polarization W-function. An interesting extension of the performed experiment will be going down to lower photon numbers (mesoscopic quantum states), and we expect a different behaviour of polarization W and Q functions in this case. An experiment on producing such states is discussed.