More is Different in the Quantum World, in its Own Way

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In his article `More is Different', P W Anderson (1972) sensitized the physics community about importance of emergence, by using concepts such as broken symmetry, emergent hierarchical structures, constructionists converse of reductionism etc. The manifestation of complexity and hierarchy in the quantum many particle systems go beyond broken symmetries. In certain quantum systems we have the opposite - emergence of new local gauge symmetries. This idea was introduced, for example, for Mott insulators, by Anderson and us in 1988. Properties such as entanglement, different possible statistics of identical particles, multi particle wave interference, vastness of Hilbert space etc;, which are unique to the world of quantum, leads to a wonderful richness in physics and mathematics, including emergent gauge symmetries, gauge fields, quantum order, holographic correspondences and continuing surprises.