How to Verify a Quantum Computation



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PIRSA Number: 
16030128

Abstract

We give a new theoretical solution to a leading-edge experimental challenge, namely to the verification of quantum computations in the regime of high computational complexity. Our results are given in the language of quantum interactive proof systems. Specifically, we show that any language in BQP has a quantum interactive proof system with a polynomial-time classical verifier (who can also prepare random single-qubit pure states), and a quantum polynomial-time prover. Here, soundness is unconditional---i.e it holds even for computationally unbounded provers. Compared to prior work achieving similar results, our technique does not require the encoding of the input or of the computation; instead, we rely on encryption of the input (together with a method to perform computations on encrypted inputs), and show that the random choice between three types of input (defining a "computational run", versus two types of "test runs") suffice. As a proof technique, we use a reduction to an entanglement-based protocol; this enables a relatively simple analysis for a situation that has previously remained ambiguous in the literature.