The flavor puzzle : Why neutrinos are different ?

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Large mixing angles and a mild mass hierarchy are observed in neutrino oscillations, in stark contrast with the quarks and charged leptons sectors where very hierarchical masses come along with small mixings.
We review and discuss the neutrino mass patterns that are technically natural, in the context of the seesaw mechanism and with a quark-lepton unification perspective.
We show that a seesaw in six dimensions offers an elegant and unique solution to the flavor puzzle. An explicit model is constructed, with a vortex background on a sphere. It offers an explanation for the replication of families in the Standard Model, and predicts suppressed flavour violating interactions.