After a brief overview of the three broad classes of superconducting quantum bits (qubits)--flux, charge and phase--I describe experiments on single and coupled flux qubits. The quantum state of a flux qubit is measured with a Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID).
Single flux qubits exhibit the properties of a spin-1/2 system, including superposition of quantum states, Rabi oscillations and spin echoes. Two qubits, coupled by their mutual inductance and by screening currents in the readout SQUID, produce a ground state |0> and three excited states
|1>, |2> and |3>. Microwave spectra reveal an anticrossing between the
|1>and |2> energy levels. The level repulsion can be reduced to zero by
means of a current pulse in the SQUID that changes its dynamic inductance and hence the coupling between the qubits. The results are in good agreement with predictions. The ability to switch the coupling between qubits on and off permits efficient realization of universal quantum logic.
This work was in collaboration with T. Hime, B.L.T. Plourde, P.A.
Reichardt, T.L. Robertson, A. Ustinov, K.B. Whaley, F.K. Wilhelm and C.-E.
Wu, and supported by AFOSR, ARO and NSF.