Beyond bosons and fermions: how to detect and use anyons

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One of the key features of the quantum Hall effect (QHE) is the fractional charge and statistics of quasiparticles. Fractionally charged anyons accumulate non-trivial phases when they encircle each other. In some QHE systems an unusual type of particles, called non-Abelian anyons, is expected to exist. When one non-Abelian particle makes a circle around another anyon this changes not only the phase but even the direction of the quantum-state vector in the Hilbert space. This property makes non-Abelian anyons promising for fault-tolerant quantum computation. Several experiments allowed an observation of fractional charges. Probing exchange statistics is more difficult and has not been accomplished for identical anyons so far. We will discuss how the statistics can be probed with Mach-Zehnder interferometry, tunneling experiments and far-from-equilibrium fluctuation-dissipation theorem.