Since 2002 Perimeter Institute has been recording seminars, conference talks, and public outreach events using video cameras installed in our lecture theatres. Perimeter now has 7 formal presentation spaces for its many scientific conferences, seminars, workshops and educational outreach activities, all with advanced audio-visual technical capabilities. Recordings of events in these areas are all available On-Demand from this Video Library and on Perimeter Institute Recorded Seminar Archive (PIRSA). PIRSA is a permanent, free, searchable, and citable archive of recorded seminars from relevant bodies in physics. This resource has been partially modelled after Cornell University's arXiv.org.
A method is developed for dealing with ultraviolet divergences in calculations of cosmological correlations, which does not depend on dimensional regularization. An extended version of the WKB approximation is used to analyze the divergences in these calculations, and these divergences are controlled by the introduction of Pauli--Villars regulator fields. This approach is illustrated in the theory of a scalar field with arbitrary self-interactions in a fixed flat-space Robertson--Walker metric with arbitrary scale factor $a(t)$.
TBA
I will present our work on loop corrections to the power spectrum of curvature fluctuations in single-field inflationary models. We consider both standard slow-roll (where the interactions between gravitons and the scalar are included for the first time) and non-canonical Lagrangians. We show that the tensor modes cannot be neglected since, in some models, they produce one loop contributions with an amplitude that is comparable to the one coming from the scalar sector.
I will discuss the emergence of anomalous scaling dimensions for superhorizon fluctuations and the main ideas and concepts of particle decay during inflation, via the resummation of secular terms with the dynamical renormalization group. There are loops, IR effects and (lots of...) issues.
Hydrodynamics is the universal theory describing the behavior of fluids when their spacetime variation is on scales longer than any microphysical scale in the fluid. Relativistic hydro has applications in heavy ion collisions and early Universe cosmology, and has seen a surge of interest due to heavy ion experiments and theoretical developments in AdS/CFT. I will explain what second order hydrodynamics is and why it is the minimum theory to study in the relativistic case.
In theories with light or massless fields, loop diagrams can develop infrared divergences. We demonstrate how these can be resolved for a theory of massless interacting scalar fields in Euclidean de Sitter space. We also comment on applications to the in-in formalism in Lorentzian de Sitter space.
Using simple semiclassical relations it is possible to show that the conventional cosmological correlation functions are affected by significant IR corrections in quasi de Sitter space-times when averaged over very large volumes (in the "large box"). The IR effects apparently imply a breakdown of perturbation theory in the large box on sufficiently long time scales, for example the time between self-reproduction and reheating in chaotic inflation. An interpretation of the apparent breakdown of the perturbative expansion of gravity will also be briefly discussed.
A simple phenomenological model for early cosmological evolution is constructed. Its motivation is the physics of quantum infrared effects in a de Sitter geometry.
Infrared logarithms are factors of the logarithm of the inflationary scale factor which arise in quantum field theoretic loop corrections that involve either massless, minimally coupled scalars or gravitons. They have been found by myself and collaborators in 1PI functions and by Steven Weinberg in the power spectrum of primordial perturbations. Because the inflationary scale factor grows so rapidly, infrared logarithms enhance loop corrections far beyond expectations based upon the coupling constant. They also inject time dependence into what are usually static results.
It is well known that there should be a total cancellation of the IR
divergences in closed systems described by interacting quantum field
theories, such as QED and gravity. I am going to show that such a
cancellation does not happen in de Sitter space.