Since 2002 Perimeter Institute has been recording seminars, conference talks, and public outreach events using video cameras installed in our lecture theatres. Perimeter now has 7 formal presentation spaces for its many scientific conferences, seminars, workshops and educational outreach activities, all with advanced audio-visual technical capabilities. Recordings of events in these areas are all available On-Demand from this Video Library and on Perimeter Institute Recorded Seminar Archive (PIRSA). PIRSA is a permanent, free, searchable, and citable archive of recorded seminars from relevant bodies in physics. This resource has been partially modelled after Cornell University's arXiv.org.
There is an ongoing debate in the literature concerning the effects of averaging out inhomogeneities (``backreaction\'\') in cosmology. In particular, it has been suggested that the backreaction can play a significant role at late times, and that the standard perturbed FLRW framework is no longer a good approximation during structure formation, when the density contrast becomes nonlinear.
Non-Gaussianity is a powerful observable that may reveal important properties of the fundamental physics of inflation, with qualitative and quantitative features of higher order correlation functions distinguishing between models. Here I will discuss the structure of correlation functions in the most general single field inflation model and explain why this information is important for making use of observations from the CMB and large scale structure.
Despite over 40 years of research on Bell-type inequalities and the question of non-locality, new technical results that have general foundational relevance can still be obtained. In this talk will present a number of new results that deal with the question of how to discern local, quantum and no-signaling correlations. • 1) I will present a non-trivial no-signaling inequality that discerns no-signaling correlations from general correlations - the first to our knowledge. This inequality has a striking similarity with the CHSH inequality, yet it is crucially different.
We are currently in the throes of a potentially huge paradigm shift in physics. Motivated by recent developments in string theory and the discovery of the so-called \'string landscape\', physicists are beginning to question the uniqueness of fundamental theories of physics and the methods by which such theories might be understsood and investigated. In this colloquium, I will give a non-technical introduction to the nature of this paradigm shift and how it developed. I will also discuss some of the questions to which it has led, and the nature of the controversies it has spawned.
The efficient computation of scattering amplitudes in quantum field theory has many important applications, ranging from the computation of QCD backgrounds at the LHC to the study of the perturbative finiteness of N=8 supergravity. \'On-shell methods\' are a crucial ingredient in the computation of gauge theory and gravity amplitudes because they are far more efficient than traditional Feynman diagram techniques. I give an introduction to the basic concepts used in this field.
I discuss our recent investigations into 2+1 dim Chern-Simons theories with gravity duals that have reduced supersymmetry. Many new phenomena such as fractional statistics arise in 2+1 dim field theory that make this duality interesting and subtle. I focus on our work involving an example of such a duality with minimal supersymmetry and propose a field theoretic dual for a long known vacuum of gauged supergravity on AdS_4. I also argue that 2+1 dim duality might present a favorable landscape for constructing non-supersymmetric conformal fixed points at large but finite N.