Since 2002 Perimeter Institute has been recording seminars, conference talks, and public outreach events using video cameras installed in our lecture theatres. Perimeter now has 7 formal presentation spaces for its many scientific conferences, seminars, workshops and educational outreach activities, all with advanced audio-visual technical capabilities. Recordings of events in these areas are all available On-Demand from this Video Library and on Perimeter Institute Recorded Seminar Archive (PIRSA). PIRSA is a permanent, free, searchable, and citable archive of recorded seminars from relevant bodies in physics. This resource has been partially modelled after Cornell University's arXiv.org.
I discuss a class of systems with a very special property: exact results for physical quantities can be found in the many-body limit in terms of the original (bare) parameters in the Hamiltonian. A classic result of this type is Onsager and Yang's formula for the magnetization in the Ising model. I show how analogous results occur in a fermion chain with strong interactions, closely related to the XXZ spin chain. This is done by exploiting a supersymmetry, and noting that certain quantites are independent of finite-size effects.
In the Ho2Ti2O7 and Dy2Ti2O7 magnetic pyrochlore oxides, the Ho and Dy Ising magnetic moments interact via geometrically frustrated effective ferromagnetic coupling. These systems possess and extensive zero entropy related to the extensive entropy of ice water -- hence the name spin ice. The classical ground states of spin ice obey a constraint on each individual tetrahedron of interacting spins -- the so-called "ice rules". At large distance, the ice-rules can be described by an effective divergent-free field and, therefore, by an emergent classical gauge theory.
Many one dimensional random quantum systems exhibit infinite randomness phases, such as the random singlet phase of the spin-1/2 Heisenberg model. These phases are typically the result of destabilizing systems described by a conformal field theory with disorder. Interestingly, entanglement entropy in 1d infinite randomness phases also exhibits a universal log scaling with length.
The quantum states postulated to occur in situations of the "Schroedinger's Cat" type are essentially N-particle GHZ states with N very large compared to 1,and their observation would thus be particularly compelling evidence for the ubiquity of the phenomenon of entanglement. However, in the traditional quantum measurement literature considerable scepticism has been expressed about the observability of this kind of "macroscopically entangled" state, primarily because of the putatively disastrous effect on it of decoherence.
Many one dimensional random quantum systems exhibit infinite randomness phases, such as the random singlet phase of the spin-1/2 Heisenberg model. These phases are typically the result of destabilizing systems described by a conformal field theory with disorder. Interestingly, entanglement entropy in 1d infinite randomness phases also exhibits a universal log scaling with length.
Condensed matter theorists have recently begun exploiting the properties of entanglement as a resource for studying quantum materials. At the forefront of current efforts is the question of how the entanglement of two subregions in a quantum many-body groundstate scales with the subregion size. The general belief is that typical groundstates obey the so-called "area law", with entanglement entropy scaling as the boundary between regions.
In recent years the characterization of many-body ground states via the entanglement of their wave-function has attracted a lot of attention. One useful measure of entanglement is provided by the entanglement entropy S.
In this talk, I will present two schemes which would result in substantial entanglement between distant individual spins of a spin chain. One relies on a global quench of the couplings of a spin chain, while the other relies on a bond quenching at one end. Both of the schemes result in substantial entanglement between the ends of a chain so that such chains could be used as a quantum wire to connect quantum registers.
Using the mapping of the Fokker-Planck description of classical stochastic dynamics onto a quantum Hamiltonian, we argue that a dynamical glass transition in the former must have a precise definition in terms of a quantum phase transition in the latter. At the dynamical level, the transition corresponds to a collapse of the excitation spectrum at a critical point.
A lattice gauge theory is described by a redundantly large vector space that is subject to local constraints, and it can be regarded as the low energy limit of a lattice model with a local symmetry. I will describe a coarse-graining scheme capable of exactly preserving local symmetries. The approach results in a variational ansatz for the ground state(s) and low energy excitations of a lattice gauge theory. This ansatz has built-in local symmetries, which are exploited to significantly reduce simulation costs.
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