Since 2002 Perimeter Institute has been recording seminars, conference talks, and public outreach events using video cameras installed in our lecture theatres. Perimeter now has 7 formal presentation spaces for its many scientific conferences, seminars, workshops and educational outreach activities, all with advanced audio-visual technical capabilities. Recordings of events in these areas are all available On-Demand from this Video Library and on Perimeter Institute Recorded Seminar Archive (PIRSA). PIRSA is a permanent, free, searchable, and citable archive of recorded seminars from relevant bodies in physics. This resource has been partially modelled after Cornell University's arXiv.org.
I will describe the emergence of geometric (Berry) phases in supersymmetric systems.
In theories with degenerate states, non-Abelian geometric phases can arise.
I show how supersymmetry helps to ensure the existence of this phenomenon by invoking the examples of systems with (2,2) and (4,4) supersymmetry. In the former, I show how instantons contribute crucially to the form of the non-Abelian phase.
In this talk, I will talk about recent developments in studying strongly coupled gauge theory using the gauge/gravity duality in string theory. In particular, the inclusion of fundamental degrees of freedom and finite chemical potential is reviewed. As an example, I will discuss the results from analyzing the gravitational dual of a none-supersymmetric gauge theory at low temperature and finite baryon chemical potential.
After a brief motivation for studying 3d gravity, a review of Strominger argument will be given, showing that 3d quantum gravity with negative cosmological constant is a conformal field theory. Classical phase space tools will be introduced to develop semi-classical analyses of gravity with zero cosmological constant, and, with negative cosmological constant and closed timelike curves.
There has been much interest, in the past few years, in the kappa-Poincare\'/kappa-Minkowski framework as a possible scenario for a deformation of Poincare\' symmetries at Planck scale. I will show how it is possible to give a physical characterization of the concept of quantum symmetries described by a nontrivial Hopf algebra. In particular, I will discuss the generalization of the Noether analysis for a scalar field in kappa-Minkowski space-time and derive conserved charges associated with each generator of the kappa-Poincare\' Hopf-algebra.
Alternative gauge choices for worldsheet supersymmetry can elucidate dynamical phenomena obscured in the usual superconformal guage. In the particular example of the tachyonic E_8 heterotic string, we use a judicious gauge choice to show that the process of closed-string tachyon condensation can be understood in terms of a worldsheet super-Higgs effect. The worldsheet gravitino assimilates the goldstino and becomes a dynamical propagating field. Conformal, but not superconformal, invariance is maintained throughout.
While Calabi-Yau compactifications of string theory are mathematically elegant, they typically result in many massless scalars in the low-energy, four-dimensional theory. Thus, it is interesting to consider non-Kahler compactifications in the hopes of deriving more phenomenologically interesting models. These models have received little attention in the heterotic theory owing to their mathematical complexity, however in recent work we have found a potential way to derive interesting features of such compactifications using gauged linear sigma models.
The descriptions of the quantum realm and the macroscopic classical world differ significantly not only in their mathematical formulations but also in their foundational concepts and philosophical consequences. When and how physical systems stop to behave quantumly and begin to behave classically is still heavily debated in the physics community and subject to theoretical and experimental research.
A conceptual framework is proposed for understanding the relationship between observables and operators in mechanics. We claim that the transformations generated by the objective properties of a physical system must be strictly interpreted as gauge transformations. It will be shown that this postulate cannot be consistently implemented in the framework of classical mechanics. We argue that the uncertainty principle is a consequence of the mutual intertwining between objective properties and gauge-dependant properties.
Relational particle mechanics are theories of relative angles and relative (ratios of) separations only. These bear a number of resemblances to the geometrodynamical formulation of general relativity and as such are useful analogues for at least some approaches to the notorious problem of time in quantum gravity.