Since 2002 Perimeter Institute has been recording seminars, conference talks, and public outreach events using video cameras installed in our lecture theatres. Perimeter now has 7 formal presentation spaces for its many scientific conferences, seminars, workshops and educational outreach activities, all with advanced audio-visual technical capabilities. Recordings of events in these areas are all available On-Demand from this Video Library and on Perimeter Institute Recorded Seminar Archive (PIRSA). PIRSA is a permanent, free, searchable, and citable archive of recorded seminars from relevant bodies in physics. This resource has been partially modelled after Cornell University's arXiv.org.
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I will discuss an alternative to inflation based on a Galileon field. The model starts in a (contracting or expanding) quasi Minkowski phase and all the energy of the Universe in generated suddenly in a sort of Genesis associated with a strong violation of the Null Energy Condition. The symmetries of the model force any additional scalar field to acquire a scale invariant spectrum of perturbations.
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How can we rule out whole classes of dark energy models? And what quantities, at what redshift, and with what accuracy, should be measured in order to rule out these classes of models? I present answers to these questions by discussing an approach that utilizes the principal component parametrization of dark energy. I show results based on current data, and future forecasted data from SNAP and Planck.
We show that the existence of the bullet cluster, 1E0657-56,
is incompatible with the prediction of the standard Lambda CDM
cosmology. The probability of finding the large infall velocity (3000 km/s)
necessary for explaining the X-ray and weak lensing data of 1E0657-56 is
between 3.3x10^{-11} and 3.6x10^{-9}. The existence of the bullet cluster
poses a serious challenge to LCDM cosmology, unless a lower infall
velocity solution for 1E0657-56 with <1800 km/s is found.
The Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) has recently measured the CMB angular power spectrum from maps with arcminute resolution at 148 GHz. By fitting to a template for the SZ angular power spectrum, we constrain the model's amplitude A_SZ < 1.63 (95% confidence level) and the amplitude of matter perturbations sigma_8 < 0.86 (95% CL). In this talk, we review the fiducial template and present additional templates for the SZ angular power spectrum based on different models for the hot gas in dark matter halos.
X-ray surveys and deep Chandra observations recently provided ~10% accurate measurements of the total mass in nearly 100 galaxy clusters at z=0-0.9. These data clearly show the effect of Dark Energy on slow-down of the structure growth at z<1. THe combination of the structure growth measurements with other cosmological observations substantially improves the constraints on the Dark Energy equation of state parameter. More advanced applications include constraints on the deviations from General Relativity on 10-100 Mpc scales.
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The arrow of time dilemma: the laws of physics are invariant for time inversion, whereas the familiar phenomena we see everyday are not (i.e. entropy increases). I show that, within a quantum mechanical framework, all phenomena which leave a trail of information behind (and hence can be studied by physics) are those where entropy necessarily increases or remains constant. All phenomena where the entropy decreases must not leave any information of their having happened. This situation is completely indistinguishable from their not having happened at all.
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