Since 2002 Perimeter Institute has been recording seminars, conference talks, and public outreach events using video cameras installed in our lecture theatres. Perimeter now has 7 formal presentation spaces for its many scientific conferences, seminars, workshops and educational outreach activities, all with advanced audio-visual technical capabilities. Recordings of events in these areas are all available On-Demand from this Video Library and on Perimeter Institute Recorded Seminar Archive (PIRSA). PIRSA is a permanent, free, searchable, and citable archive of recorded seminars from relevant bodies in physics. This resource has been partially modelled after Cornell University's arXiv.org.
The Bell Curve is an extremely beautiful and elegant mathematical object that turns up – often in surprising ways – in all spheres of human life. The Curve was first used by astronomers to correct errors in their observations, but it soon found important applications in the social and medical sciences in the eighteen hundreds. Some philosophers believe that a new kind of human being was created around this time largely due to the growth of statistical reasoning in the arts and sciences. Dr.
Combining the principles of general relativity and quantum theory still remains as elusive as ever. Recent work, that concentrated on one of the points of contact (and conflict) between quantum theory and general relativity, suggests a new perspective on gravity. It appears that the gravitational dynamics in a wide class of theories - including, but not limited to, standard Einstein's theory - can be given a purely thermodynamic interpretation. In this approach gravity appears as an emergent phenomenon, like e.g., gas or fluid dynamics.
This talk will discuss some surprising links which have emerged in the last few years between two at first sight distinct areas of mathematical physics: the spectral properties of certain simple schroedinger-like equations, and the Bethe ansatz techniques which are used to compute the energies of states in integrable quantum field theories. No knowledge of either area will be assumed.
Quantization of string theory on the AdS(3) backgrounds with the RR flux, such as AdS(3)xS(3)xT(4) or AdS(3)xS(3)xS(3)xS(1), is an unsolved problem. Since the sigma model on these backgrounds is classically integrable, one can try to implement powerful methods of integrability similar to those used to solve AdS(5)/CFT(4) and AdS(4)/CFT(3). I will describe the integrability approach to the AdS(3) backgrounds, emphasizing the differences to the better understood cases of AdS(5) and AdS(4).
I describe a novel abelian gauge theory in 2+1 dimensions which has surprising theoretical and phenomenological features. The theory has a vanishing coefficient for the square of the electric field $e_i^2$, characteristic of a quantum critical point with dynamical critical exponent $z=2$, and a level-$k$ Chern-Simons coupling, which is marginal at this critical point. For $k=0$, this theory is dual to a free $z=2$ scalar field theory describing a quantum Lifshitz transition, but $k \neq 0$ renders the scalar description non-local.
The theory of topological insulators will be reviewed in terms familiar to particle theorists.
The AdS/CFT correspondence has opened the door to understand a class of strongly coupled quantum field theories. Although the original correspondence has been conjectured based on string theory, it is possible that the underlying principle is more general, and a wider class of quantum field theories can be understood through holographic descriptions. In this talk, I will discuss about a prescription to construct holographic theories for general quantum field theories. As an example, I will present a holographic dual theory for the D-dimensional O(N) vector model.
The entanglement entropy of a pure quantum state of a bipartite system is defined as the von Neumann entropy of the reduced density matrix obtained by tracing over one of the two parts. Critical ground states of local Hamiltonians in one dimension have entanglement that diverges logarithmically in the subsystem size, with a universal coefficient that is is related to the central charge of the associated conformal field theory.