Since 2002 Perimeter Institute has been recording seminars, conference talks, public outreach events such as talks from top scientists using video cameras installed in our lecture theatres. Perimeter now has 7 formal presentation spaces for its many scientific conferences, seminars, workshops and educational outreach activities, all with advanced audio-visual technical capabilities.
Recordings of events in these areas are all available and On-Demand from this Video Library and on Perimeter Institute Recorded Seminar Archive (PIRSA). PIRSA is a permanent, free, searchable, and citable archive of recorded seminars from relevant bodies in physics. This resource has been partially modelled after Cornell University's arXiv.org.
Accessibly by anyone with internet, Perimeter aims to share the power and wonder of science with this free library.
In eukaryotic organisms, DNA replication is initiated at “origins,” launching “forks” that spread bidirectionally to replicate the genome. The distribution and firing rate of these origins and the fork progression velocity form the “replication program.” With Antoine Baker, I generalize a stochastic model of DNA replication to allow for space and time variations in origin-initiation rates, characterized by a function I(x,t). We then address the inverse problem of inferring I(x,t) from experimental data concerning replication in cell populations.
Spin foams provide models for quantum gravity and hence quantum space time. One of the key outstanding questions is to show that they reproduce smooth space time manifolds in a continuum limit.I will start with a very short introduction to spin foams and the structure of quantum space time they encode.
This talk will focus on the behavior of colloidal crystals, and will describe both the nucleation and growth of crystals and their melting. The nucleation and growth of colloidal crystals is experimentally observed to be much faster than expected theoretically or through simulation. The discrepancy can be as much as 10^{150}! I will describe some new experiments that suggest a possible reason for this. I will also describe the melting of colloidal crystals formed with highly charged particles that form a Wigner lattice.
The discovery of the Higgs boson marks the first direct probe into the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking. All evidence currently points to the fact that electroweak symmetry is broken by at least one fundamental scalar, and naturalness remains the most compelling reason to expect additional degrees of freedom at the weak scale.
We have modelled stress concentration around small gaps in anisotropic elastic sheets, corresponding to the peptidoglycan sacculus of bacterial cells, under loading corresponding to the effects of turgor pressure in rod-shaped bacteria. We find that under normal conditions the stress concentration is insufficient to mechanically rupture bacteria, even for gaps up to a micron in length. We then explored the effects of stress-dependent smart-autolysins, as hypothesised by Arthur L Koch.
We show how to utilize soft modes in the vibrational spectrum as a universal tool for the identification of defects in solids. Perfect crystals with isolated dislocations exhibit single phonon modes that localize at the dislocation core, and their polarization pattern predicts the motion of atoms during elementary dislocation glide in two and three dimensions in great detail. A superposition of soft modes can be used to construct a population of soft spots that predict the location of local plastic rearrangements at the grain boundaries of polycrystals and in amorphous solids.
Within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), LHC bounds suggest that scalar superpartner masses are far above the electroweak scale. Given a high superpartner mass, nonthermal dark matter is a viable alternative to WIMP dark matter generated via freezeout. In the presence of moduli fields nonthermal dark matter production is associated with a long matter dominated phase, modifying the spectral index and primordial tensor amplitude relative to those in a thermalized primordial universe.
Phase field crystal models and their recent extension will be summarized. Their application to non-equilibrium kinetics and phase transformations in materials will be reviewed. In particular, we review new results from applications of this modeling paradigm to solute trapping during rapid solidification of alloys, defect-mediated solid-state precipitation, and magneto-crystalline interactions. We close with a discussion of new complex amplitude representations of PFC models and how these can be used for multi-scale simulations using adaptive mesh refinement methods.
Colloids in a liquid crystal matrix exhibit very anisotropic
interactions. Further, these interactions can be altered by both properties of
the colloid and of the liquid crystal. This gives a potential for creating
specific colloidal aggregates and crystals by manipulating the interactions
between colloids. However, modelling these interacting colloids in a liquid
crystal is very challenging. We use a hybrid particle-lattice Boltzmann scheme
that incorporates hydrodynamic forces and forces from the liquid crystal