Since 2002 Perimeter Institute has been recording seminars, conference talks, and public outreach events using video cameras installed in our lecture theatres. Perimeter now has 7 formal presentation spaces for its many scientific conferences, seminars, workshops and educational outreach activities, all with advanced audio-visual technical capabilities. Recordings of events in these areas are all available On-Demand from this Video Library and on Perimeter Institute Recorded Seminar Archive (PIRSA). PIRSA is a permanent, free, searchable, and citable archive of recorded seminars from relevant bodies in physics. This resource has been partially modelled after Cornell University's arXiv.org.
A Majorana fermion is a particle that is its own antiparticle. It has been studied in high energy physics for decades, but has not been definitely observed. In condensed matter physics, Majorana fermions appear as low energy fractionalized quasi-particles with non-Abelian statistics and inherent nonlocality. In this talk I will first discuss recent theoretical proposals of realizing Majorana fermions in solid-state systems, including topological insulators and nanowires.
The uncertainty principle bounds the uncertainties about the outcomes of two incompatible measurements, such as position and momentum, on a particle. It implies that one cannot predict the outcomes for both possible choices of measurement to arbitrary precision, even if information about the preparation of the particle is available in a classical memory. However, if the particle is prepared entangled with a quantum memory, it is possible to predict the outcomes for both measurement choices precisely.
The quantum spin Hall effect relates seemingly unrelated degrees of freedom, i.e., charge and spin degrees of freedom. We will discuss such "duality" can be extended to much wider class of quantum numbers, and the corresponding order parameters. In particular, two valleys in graphene can be viewed as an SU(2) pseudo spin degree of freedom, which turns out to be "dual" to the charge degree of freedom, pretty much in the same way as spin in the quantum spin Hall effect is closely tied with charge. I.e., graphene can host "the quantum valley Hall effect" (QVHE).
We give a detailed derivation of a supersymmetric configuration of wrapped D5-branes on a two-cycle of a warped resolved conifold. Our analysis reveals that the resolved conifold should support a non-Kahler metric with an SU(3) structure. We use this as a starting point of the geometric transition in type IIB theory. A mirror, and a subsequent flop transition using an intermediate M-theory configuration with a G2 structure, gives rise to the complete IR geometric transition in type IIA theory.