Since 2002 Perimeter Institute has been recording seminars, conference talks, and public outreach events using video cameras installed in our lecture theatres. Perimeter now has 7 formal presentation spaces for its many scientific conferences, seminars, workshops and educational outreach activities, all with advanced audio-visual technical capabilities. Recordings of events in these areas are all available On-Demand from this Video Library and on Perimeter Institute Recorded Seminar Archive (PIRSA). PIRSA is a permanent, free, searchable, and citable archive of recorded seminars from relevant bodies in physics. This resource has been partially modelled after Cornell University's arXiv.org.
The initial conditions of our Universe can be summarized on a single sheet of paper. Yet the Universe is full of complex structures today, such as stars, galaxies and groups of galaxies. I will describe how complexity emerged in the form of the first stars out of the simple initial state of the Universe at early cosmic times. The future of the Universe is even more surprising. Over the past decade it was realized that the cosmic expansion has been accelerating.
The relic neutrino background contains a gapless, spin-2 sound mode, as well as a spin-1 mode if there is a neutrino-antineutrino asymmetry. The self-coupling of the spin-2 mode is given by Z boson exchange in the Standard Model and is parametrically similar to Newton's constant given the expected density of relic neutrinos. I will describe this emergent gravity theory and also describe how emergent theories avoid the Weinberg-Witten theorem, when the constituent degrees of freedom live in a flat Lorentz invariant space.
How do we weigh the Universe? Where is the Dark Matter? I will discuss these questions and show that several independent methods, including the observed present-day abundance of rich clusters , the evolution of cluster abundance with redshift, the baryon-fraction in clusters, the observed Mass-to-Light function from galaxies to superclusters, and other large-scale structure observations, all reveal a universe with a low mass density parameter of ~20% of the critical density.