Since 2002 Perimeter Institute has been recording seminars, conference talks, and public outreach events using video cameras installed in our lecture theatres. Perimeter now has 7 formal presentation spaces for its many scientific conferences, seminars, workshops and educational outreach activities, all with advanced audio-visual technical capabilities. Recordings of events in these areas are all available On-Demand from this Video Library and on Perimeter Institute Recorded Seminar Archive (PIRSA). PIRSA is a permanent, free, searchable, and citable archive of recorded seminars from relevant bodies in physics. This resource has been partially modelled after Cornell University's arXiv.org.
It is sometimes pointed out as a curiosity that the state space of quantum theory and actual physical space seem related in a surprising way: not only is space three-dimensional and Euclidean, but so is the Bloch ball which describes quantum two-level systems. In the talk, I report on joint work with Lluis Masanes, where we show how this observation can be turned into a mathematical result: suppose that physics takes place in d spatial dimensions, and that some events happen probabilistically (dropping quantum theory and complex amplitudes altogether).
We review the notion of a quantum state of the universe and its role in fundamental cosmology. Then we discuss recent work which points towards a profound connection, at the level of the quantum state, between (asymptotic) Euclidean AdS spaces and Lorentzian de Sitter spaces. This gives a new framework in which (a mild generalization of) AdS/CFT can be applied to inflationary cosmology.
I will describe the tight connection between cosmic baryon number and cosmic magnetic fields, and also some recent work on chiral magnetic effects in cosmology.
I will review the construction of lattice theories which maintain one or more exact supersymmetries for non zero lattice spacing concentrating in particular on the case of N=4 super Yang-Mills. Such lattice theories may be studied using Monte Carlo techniques borrowed from lattice QCD and can be used to explore issues in holography. In three dimensions the same constructions can be used to formulate a topological theory of gravity which we argue is equivalent to Witten's Chern Simons theory.
The ground state phase of spin-1/2 J1-J2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on square lattice in the maximally frustrated regime (J2 ~ 0.5J1) has been debated for decades. Here we study this model by using a recently proposed novel numerical method - the cluster update algorithm for tensor product states (TPSs). The ground state energies at finite sizes and in the thermodynamic limit (with finite size scaling) are in good agreement with the state of art exact diagonalization study, and
There has been some significant recent progress on the long-standing problem of identifying the conditions under which equilibrium statistical mechanics can arise from an exact quantum mechanical treatment of the dynamics. I will give an overview of this progress, describing in particular how random matrix models and the associated concentration of measure phenomena imply that equilibration is generic even for the closed system evolution of pure quantum states.
The IceCube neutrino observatory is the world's largest high-energy neutrino telescope, utilizing the deep Antarctic ice as the Cherenkov detector medium. In December 2010 the last of the observatory's 86 strings of optical detectors was deployed, completing the approximate cubic-kilometer array. With the addition of a low-energy extension, called DeepCore, the observatory has very high neutrino detection efficiency for energies ranging from ~10 GeV to a few EeV. The low-energy threshold establishes the first steps towards precision neutrino measurements in the Antarctic.
The curvaton scenario provides a simple explanation for the generation of the cosmological perturbations, however most works have focused on cases with rather trivial curvaton energy potentials, e.g. quadratic ones. In this talk I will present the rich phenomenology of curvatons by showing that non-quadratic curvatons exhibit new behaviors, leading to interesting signals in the resulting density perturbations. A string theory realization of the curvaton scenario will also be discussed, where D-branes located in a warped throat region of the internal space play the role of curvatons.
We propose a form of parallel computing on classical computers that is based on matrix product states. The virtual parallelization is accomplished by evolving all possible results for multiple inputs, with bits represented by matrices. The action by classical probabilistic 1-bit and deterministic 2-bit gates such as NAND are implemented in terms of matrix operations and, as opposed to quantum computing, it is possible to copy bits. We present a way to explore this method of computation to solve search problems and count the number of solutions.