Since 2002 Perimeter Institute has been recording seminars, conference talks, and public outreach events using video cameras installed in our lecture theatres. Perimeter now has 7 formal presentation spaces for its many scientific conferences, seminars, workshops and educational outreach activities, all with advanced audio-visual technical capabilities. Recordings of events in these areas are all available On-Demand from this Video Library and on Perimeter Institute Recorded Seminar Archive (PIRSA). PIRSA is a permanent, free, searchable, and citable archive of recorded seminars from relevant bodies in physics. This resource has been partially modelled after Cornell University's arXiv.org.
Quantum theory can be thought of a noncommutative generalization of classical probability and, from this perspective, it is puzzling that no quantum generalization of conditional probability is in widespread use. In this talk, I discuss one such generalization and show how it can unify the description of ensemble preparations of quantum states, POVM measurements and the description of correlations between quantum systems.
We will analyze different aspects of locality in causal operational probabilistic theories. We will first discuss the notion of local state and local objective information in operational probabilistic theories, and define an operational notion of discord that coincides with quantum discord in the case of quantum theory. Using such notion, we will show that the only theory in which all separable states have null discord is the classical one. We will then analyze locality of transformations, reviewing some general properties of no-signaling channels in causal theories.
The model of local non-Gaussianity, parameterized by the constant non-linearity parameter fNL, is an extremely popular description of non-Gaussianity. However, a mild scale-dependence of fNL is natural. This scale dependence is a new observable, potentially detectable with the Planck satellite, which helps to further discriminate between models of inflation. It is sensitive to properties of the early universe which are not probed by the standard observables.
I will discuss the construction of a holographic dictionary for theories with non-relativistic conformal symmetry, relating the field theory to the dual spacetime. I will focus on the case of Lifshitz spacetimes, giving a definition of asymptotically locally Lifshitz spacetimes and discussing the calculation of field theory observables and holographic renormalization.
We address the problem of testing the dimensionality of classical and quantum systems in a Ã¢ÂÂblack-boxÃ¢ÂÂ scenario. Imagine two uncharacterized devices. The first one allows an experimentalist to prepare a physical system in various ways. The second one allows the experimentalist to perform some measurement on the system. After collecting enough statistics, the experimentalist obtains a Ã¢ÂÂdata tableÃ¢ÂÂ, featuring the probability distribution of the measurement outcomes for each choice of preparation (of the system) and of measurement.
A seminal work by Cleve, HÃÂ¸yer, Toner and Watrous (quant-ph/0404076) proposed a close connection between quantum nonlocality and computational complexity theory by considering nonlocal games and multi-prover interactive proof systems with entangled provers. It opened up the whole area of study of the computational nature of nonlocality. Since then, understanding nonlocality has been one of the major goals in computational complexity theory in the quantum setting. This talk gives a survey of this exciting area.
In this talk, I'll survey various "foils" of BQP (Bounded-Error Quantum Polynomial-Time) that have been proposed: that is, changes to the quantum model of computation that make it either more or less powerful.
We discuss bulk and holographic features of black hole solutions of 4D anti de Sitter Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton gravity. At finite temperature the field theory holographically dual to these solutions has a rich and interesting phenomenology reminiscent of electron motion in metals:
phase transitions triggered by nonvanishing VEV of scalar operators, non-monotonic behavior of the electric conductivities etc. Conversely, in the zero temperature limit the transport properties for these models show an universal behavior.
Operational theories , defined in terms of the actions and observations of an experimenter, have been extremely successful as foils to quantum mechanics, providing a generic framework in which families of theories may be compared and classified. One area of particular interest has been in the non-classical correlations (often referred to non-locality) which can arise in quantum (and generalised) theories, when measurements are space-like separated. In the context of non-locality, one usually considers the correlations in separated measurements on isolated systems.
David Deutsch re-formulated the Church-Turing thesis as a physical principle, asserting that "every finitely realizable physical system can be perfectly simulated by a universal model computing machine operating by finite means". Such principle can be regarded as a new theoretical paradigm, whereby the entire Physics is emerging from a quantum computation. But for a theory to be a good one, it must explain a large class of phenomena based on few general principles.