Since 2002 Perimeter Institute has been recording seminars, conference talks, and public outreach events using video cameras installed in our lecture theatres. Perimeter now has 7 formal presentation spaces for its many scientific conferences, seminars, workshops and educational outreach activities, all with advanced audio-visual technical capabilities. Recordings of events in these areas are all available On-Demand from this Video Library and on Perimeter Institute Recorded Seminar Archive (PIRSA). PIRSA is a permanent, free, searchable, and citable archive of recorded seminars from relevant bodies in physics. This resource has been partially modelled after Cornell University's arXiv.org.
Taking our intuitive understanding of the quantum world gained by studying a particle in a one-dimensional box, we generalize to understand a quantum harmonic oscillator.
Learning Outcomes:
• Introduction to the classical physics of a ball rolling back and forth in a bowl, a simple example of a very important type of bounded motion called a “harmonic oscillator.”
• The quantization of allowed energies of a harmonic oscillator: even spacing between energy levels, and zero point energy.
By applying our understanding of the quantum harmonic oscillator to the electromagnetic field we learn what a photon is, and are introduced to “quantum field theory” and the amazing “Casimir effect.”
Learning Outcomes:
• Understanding that classical electromagnetic waves bouncing around inside a mirrored box will exist as standing waves with only certain allowed frequencies.
Space obeys the rules of Euclidean geometry. Spacetime obeys the rules of a new kind of geometry called Minkowskian geometry.
Learning Outcomes:
• Triangles in spacetime obey a Pythagoras-like theorem, but with an unusual minus sign.
• The true nature of time as geometrical distance in spacetime.
• How to analyse and resolve the Twins’ Paradox using spacetime diagrams in combination with Minkowskian geometry.
Learning to use Minkowskian geometry to understand, very simply, a variety of aspects of Einstein’s spacetime.
Learning Outcomes:
• How a straight line is the longest path between two points in spacetime.
• How a light particle experiences space and time: its journey from one location in the universe to another involves zero spacetime distance, and is thus instantaneous!
• How Einstein’s special relativity has no difficulty handling accelerated observers.
A discussion of how to synchronize clocks that are separated in space, and how this leads to the relativity of simultaneity.
Learning Outcomes:
• Understanding that clock synchronization is a physical process, and exploring various methods of synchronization using spacetime diagrams.
• How to measure distance with a clock: the concept of radar ranging distance.
• A profound realization about the nature of spacetime: Events that are simultaneous for one observer might not be simultaneous for another.
Highlighting the essential difference between the classical and quantum worlds.
Learning Outcomes:
• A recap of what we’ve learned so far.
• Understanding that in the classical world we have either “particle moving to the right” OR “particle moving to the left.”
• Understanding that, in the quantum world, OR can be replaced with AND: “particle moving to the right” AND “particle moving to the left.”
A discussion of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle as another way to understand quantum weirdness.
Learning Outcomes:
• Some deeper insights into what a particle probability pattern means.
• The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle gives a limit to the precision with which we can simultaneously know both the position and the momentum of a particle.
• Deriving the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle from the de Broglie relation.
A more in depth discussion of what the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle is trying to tell us about the nature of reality.
Learning Outcomes:
• Understanding the strong interpretation of the HUP: “Particles cannot simultaneously possess a definite position and a definite momentum.”
• Why the classical question: “Given a particle’s initial position and momentum, what is its position and momentum as some later time t?” makes no sense in the quantum world.
• Richard Feynman’s remarkable sum over paths interpretation of quantum mechanics.