Since 2002 Perimeter Institute has been recording seminars, conference talks, and public outreach events using video cameras installed in our lecture theatres. Perimeter now has 7 formal presentation spaces for its many scientific conferences, seminars, workshops and educational outreach activities, all with advanced audio-visual technical capabilities. Recordings of events in these areas are all available On-Demand from this Video Library and on Perimeter Institute Recorded Seminar Archive (PIRSA). PIRSA is a permanent, free, searchable, and citable archive of recorded seminars from relevant bodies in physics. This resource has been partially modelled after Cornell University's arXiv.org.
I\'ll survey recent results from quantum computing theory showing that,if one just wishes to learn enough about a quantum state to predictthe outcomes of most measurements that will actually be made, then itoften suffices to perform exponentially fewer measurements than wouldbe needed in quantum state tomography. I\'ll then describe the resultsof a numerical simulation of the new quantum state learning approach.The latter is joint work with Eyal Dechter.
We introduce the concept of tight POVMs. In analogy with tight frames, these are POVMs that are as close as possible to orthonormal bases for the space they span. We show that tight rank-one POVMs define the exact class of optimal measurements for linear tomography of quantum states. In this setting they are equivalent to complex projective 2-designs. We also show that tight POVMs define the optimal class of measurements on the probe state for ancilla-assisted process tomography of unital channels. In this setting they are equivalent to unitary 2-designs.
The basic principles of quantum state tomography were first outlined by Stokes for the context of light polarisation more than 150 years ago. For an experimentalist the goal is clear: to use a series of measurement outcomes to make the best possible estimate of a system\'s quantum state, including phase information, with the least amount of measurement (and analysis) time and, if possible, also the least expensive and complicated apparatus.
We present a novel quantum tomographic reconstruction method based on Bayesian inference via the Kalman filter update equations. The method not only yields the maximum likelihood/optimal Bayesian reconstruction, but also a covariance matrix expressing the measurement uncertainties in a complete way. From this covariance matrix the error bars on any derived quantity can be easily calculated.
The experimental realization of entangled states requires tools for characterizing the produced states as well as the processes used for creating the entanglement. In my talk, I will present examples of quantum measurements occuring in trapped ion experiments aiming at creating high-fidelity quantum gates.
A new approach to Quantum Estimation Theory will be introduced, based on the novel notions of \'quantum comb\' and \'quantum tester\', which generalize the customary notions of \'channel\' and \'POVM\' [PRL 101 060401 (2008)]. The new approach opens completely new possibilities of optimization in Quantum Estimation, beyond the classic approach of Helstrom and Holevo. Using comb theory it is possible to optimize the input-output arrangement of the black boxes for estimation with many uses.
The reason cosmologists have a job is that the Universe as a whole -- the stuff between planets and stars and galaxies -- is, despite first appearances, a pretty interesting place. The strangest fact about it is that it\'s expanding, and always has been, as far as we know (and though Einstein\'s theory of gravity predicts this, Albert himself didn\'t much care for the idea, at least at first). After about seventy years -- it was discovered in 1929 -- this expansion was kind of old hat, but then new observations came around that shattered the old complacency.
The reason cosmologists have a job is that the Universe as a whole -- the stuff between planets and stars and galaxies -- is, despite first appearances, a pretty interesting place. The strangest fact about it is that it's expanding, and always has been, as far as we know (and though Einstein's theory of gravity predicts this, Albert himself didn't much care for the idea, at least at first). After about seventy years -- it was discovered in 1929 -- this expansion was kind of old hat, but then new observations came around that shattered the old complacency.
One simple way to think about physics is in terms of information. We gain information about physical systems by observing them, and with luck this data allows us to predict what they will do next. Quantum mechanics doesn\'t just change the rules about how physical objects behave - it changes the rules about how information behaves. In this talk we explore what quantum information is, and how strangely it differs from our intuitions.