Since 2002 Perimeter Institute has been recording seminars, conference talks, and public outreach events using video cameras installed in our lecture theatres. Perimeter now has 7 formal presentation spaces for its many scientific conferences, seminars, workshops and educational outreach activities, all with advanced audio-visual technical capabilities. Recordings of events in these areas are all available On-Demand from this Video Library and on Perimeter Institute Recorded Seminar Archive (PIRSA). PIRSA is a permanent, free, searchable, and citable archive of recorded seminars from relevant bodies in physics. This resource has been partially modelled after Cornell University's arXiv.org.
We point out and explicitly demonstrate a close connection that exists between featureless Mott insulators and fractional quantum Hall liquids. Using magnetic Wannier states as the single-particle basis in the lowest Landau level (LLL), we demonstrate that the Hamiltonian of interacting bosons in the LLL maps onto a Hamiltonian of a featureless Mott insulator on triangular lattice, formed by the magnetic Wannier states. The Hamiltonian is remarkably simple and consists only of short-range repulsion and ring-exchange terms.
The heavy fermion URu2Si2 boasts a 25 year old mystery. Its ''hidden order'' phase transition at Tc=17.5K has eluded the onslaught of theory and experiment to describe the complex underlying mechanism. Whether the transition is due to conventional ordering of k-space heavy electrons or to a change in hybridization of the r-space states at each magnetic-moment-contributing U atom is unknown. Addressing the problem requires a probe which can simultaneously measure the real space and momentum space structure, making spectroscopic imaging STM (SI-STM) the natural choice.
Soft materials are dynamical by nature and the study of the dynamics of soft materials is an exciting, rich area of current interest. During macromolecular self-assembly, as occurs in block copolymers, long structural relaxation timescales due to collective molecular motion are often seen. How microstructure influences the dynamics, the existence and lifetime of metastable states, and the dynamics of long-lived non-equilibrium structures are all poorly-understood issues.
Frustrated pyrochlore magnets with Ising-like moments have attracted much attention due to the spin ice and spin liquid disordered states these materials display at low temperatures. We recently focused attention on Er2Ti2O7 and Yb2Ti2O7 which possess local XY, or planar, moments on the pyrochlore lattice - a network of corner sharing tetrahedra.
In correlated electron systems, electrons can organize themselves in states that are analogous to classical liquid crystal phases. The search for such phases in solid state systems, in particular for the quantum version of an anisotropic liquid crystal state, dubbed electronic nematic phase, has been of great interest.
I will discuss NMR study of two types of iron based superconductors, electron doped Ba(Fe,Co)2As2 and stoichiometric FeSe. The primary focus will be on normal state spin fluctuations and its possible relation with the superconducting mechanism, and the pairing symmetry as probed by NMR.
Recent theory and experiment have revealed that strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC) can have dramatic qualitative effects on weakly interacting electrons. For instance, it leads to a distinct phase of matter, the topological band insulator. I will discuss the combined effects of SOC and strong electron correlation. For a ''strong'' Mott insulator, in which the electrons are well localized, SOC can compete with exchange interactions, leading to quenching of orbital degeneracy and even an instance of quantum criticality.
Gauge Invariant Cosmological Perturbation theory from 3+1 formulation of General Relativity. This course will aim to study in detail the 3+1 decomposition in General Relativity and use the formalism to derive Gauge invariant perturbation theory at the linear order. Some applications will be studied.
Frustrated magnets are materials in which localized magnetic moments, or spins, interact through competing exchange interactions that cannot be simultaneously satisfied, giving rise to a large degeneracy of the system ground state. Under certain conditions, this can lead to the formation of fluid-like states of matter, so-called spin liquids, in which the constituent spins are highly correlated but still fluctuate strongly down to a temperature of absolute zero.