Since 2002 Perimeter Institute has been recording seminars, conference talks, and public outreach events using video cameras installed in our lecture theatres. Perimeter now has 7 formal presentation spaces for its many scientific conferences, seminars, workshops and educational outreach activities, all with advanced audio-visual technical capabilities. Recordings of events in these areas are all available On-Demand from this Video Library and on Perimeter Institute Recorded Seminar Archive (PIRSA). PIRSA is a permanent, free, searchable, and citable archive of recorded seminars from relevant bodies in physics. This resource has been partially modelled after Cornell University's arXiv.org.
From Feynman diagrams via Penrose graphical notation to quantum circuits, graphical languages are widely used in quantum theory and other areas of theoretical physics. The category-theoretical approach to quantum mechanics yields a new set of graphical languages, which allow rigorous pictorial reasoning about quantum systems and processes. One such language is the ZX-calculus, which is built up of elements corresponding to maps in the computational and the Hadamard basis.
Instead of formulating the state space of a quantum field theory over a single big Hilbert space, it has been proposed by Jerzy Kijowski to describe quantum states as projective families of density matrices over a collection of smaller, simpler Hilbert spaces. I will discuss the physical motivations for this approach and explain how it can be implemented in the context of LQG. While the resulting state space forms a natural extension of the Ashtekar-Lewandowski Hilbert space, it treats position and momentum variables on equal footing.
In this talk I will present some results of an upcoming paper where we study four-dimensional N=2 superconformal field theories using the conformal bootstrap.
We focus on two different four-point functions, involving either the superconformal primary of the flavor current multiplet or the one of the chiral multiplet.
Numerical analysis of the crossing equations yields lower bounds on the allowed central charges, and upper bounds on the dimensions of unprotected operators (for unitary theories).
Two-dimensional interacting electron gas in strong transverse magnetic field forms a collective state -- incompressible electron liquid, known as fractional quantum Hall (FQH) state. FQH states are genuinely new states of matter with long range topological order. Their primary observable characteristics are the absence of dissipation and quantization of the transverse electro-magnetic response known Hall conductance. In addition to quantized electromagnetic response FQH states are characterized by quantized geometric responses such as Hall viscosity and thermal Hall conductance.
Renormalized perturbation theory for QFTs typically produces divergent series, even if the coupling constant is small, because the series coefficients grow factorially at high order. A natural, but historically difficult, challenge has been how to make sense of the asymptotic nature of perturbative series. In what sense do such series capture the physics of a QFT, even for weak coupling?
The cosmological model based on cold dark matter (CDM) and dark energy has been hugely successful in describing the observed evolution and large scale structure of our Universe. However, at small scales (in the smallest galaxies and at the centers of larger galaxies), a number of observations seem to conflict with the predictions CDM cosmology, leading to recent interest in Warm Dark Matter (WDM) and Self-Interacting Dark Matter (SIDM) models. These small scales, though, are also regions dominated by the influence of baryons.
We propose a new way to search for (hidden) cool molecular hydrogen H2 in the Galaxy through diffractive and refractive effects: Stars twinkle because their light crosses the atmosphere. The same phenomenon is expected on a longer time scale when the light of a remote star crosses an interstellar turbulent molecular cloud, but it has never been observed at optical wavelengths.
I offer a personal perspective on the causal dynamical triangulations approach to the construction of quantum theories of gravity. After briefly introducing the approach's formalism and results, I illuminate this perspective with 3+1 vignettes of recent and ongoing research.
One version of the membrane paradigm states that as far as outside observers are concerned, black holes can be replaced by a dissipative membrane with simple physical properties located at the stretched horizon. We demonstrate that such a membrane paradigm is incomplete in several aspects. We argue that it generically fails to capture the massive quasinormal modes, unless we replace the stretched horizon by the exact event horizon, and illustrate this with a scalar field in a BTZ black hole background.