Since 2002 Perimeter Institute has been recording seminars, conference talks, and public outreach events using video cameras installed in our lecture theatres. Perimeter now has 7 formal presentation spaces for its many scientific conferences, seminars, workshops and educational outreach activities, all with advanced audio-visual technical capabilities. Recordings of events in these areas are all available On-Demand from this Video Library and on Perimeter Institute Recorded Seminar Archive (PIRSA). PIRSA is a permanent, free, searchable, and citable archive of recorded seminars from relevant bodies in physics. This resource has been partially modelled after Cornell University's arXiv.org.
This talk is divided into two parts. In the first part, I discuss a scheme of fault-tolerant quantum computation for a web-like physical architecture of a quantum computer. Small logical units of a few qubits (realized in ion traps, for example) are linked via a photonic interconnect which provides probabilistic heralded Bell pairs [1]. Two time scales compete in this system, namely the characteristic decoherence time T_D and the typical time T_E it takes to provide a Bell pair.
I will try to explain how cosmological coincidence of the two values, the matter energy density and the dark energy density, at the present epoch based on a single scalar field model whith a quartic potential, non-mimimally interacting with gravity. Dark energy in this model originates from the potential energy of the scalar field, which is sourced by the appearance of non-relativistic matter at the time z~ 10^10. No fine tuning of parameter are neccessary.
Only a rare number of constructions of quantum LDPC codes are equipped with an unbounded minimum distance. Most of them are inspired by Kitaev toric codes constructed from the a tiling of the torus such as, color codes which are based on 3-colored tilings of surfaces, hyperbolic codes which are defined from hyperbolic tilings, or codes based on higher dimensional manifolds. These constructions are based on tilings of surfaces or manifolds and their parameters depend on the homology of the tiling.
In this talk, I will explain how to use lattice surgery to enact a universal set of fault-tolerant quantum operations with color codes. Along the way, I will also show how to improve existing surface-code lattice-surgery methods. Lattice-surgery methods use fewer qubits and the same time or less than associated defect-braiding methods. Per code distance, color-code lattice surgery uses approximately half the qubits and the same time or less than surface-code lattice surgery.
Centuries of astronomy and cosmology have led to an ever-larger picture of our ‘universe’ — everything that we can observe. For just as long, there have been speculations that there are other regions beyond what is currently observable, each with diverse histories and properties, and all inhabiting a ‘Multiverse’.
We consider two-dimensional lattice models that support Ising anyonic excitations and are coupled to a thermal bath, and we propose a phenomenological model to describe the resulting short-time dynamics, including pair-creation, hopping, braiding, and fusion of anyons. By explicitly constructing topological quantum error-correcting codes for this class of system, we use our thermalization model to estimate the lifetime of quantum information stored in the code space.
We analyze entropic uncertainty relations in a finite dimensional Hilbert space and derive several strong bounds for the sum of two entropies obtained in projective measurements with respect to any two orthogonal bases. We improve the recent bounds by Coles and Piani, which are known to be stronger than the well known result of Maassen and Uffink. Furthermore, we find a novel bound based on majorization techniques, which also happens to be stronger than the recent results involving largest singular values of submatrices of the unitary matrix connecting both bases.
The threshold theorem for fault tolerance tells us that it is possible to build arbitrarily large reliable quantum computers provided the error rate per physical gate or time step is below some threshold value. Most research on the threshold theorem so far has gone into optimizing the tolerable error rate under various assumptions, with other considerations being secondary. However, for the foreseeable future, the number of qubits may be an even greater restriction than error rates.
We introduce space-time quantum code construction which is based on repeating the layers of an arbitrary quantum error correcting code. The error threshold of such space-time construction is shown to be related to the fault tolerant error threshold of the original quantum error correcting code in the presence of errors in syndrome measurements. The decoding transition for space-time codes can be further mapped to random-bond Wegner spin models.
In maximum likelihood (ML) decoding, we are trying to find the most likely error given the measured syndrome. While this is hardly ever practical, such a decoder is expected to have the highest threshold.