This series consists of talks in the area of Superstring Theory.
We show that when a volume of quark matter rotates, there is an axial current flowing along the rotation axis. This effect has been overlooked in all previous treatments of relativistic fluids until calculations using gauge/gravity duality indicate it existence. The effect is a manifestation of triangle anomalies, and may exhibit itself in heavy ion collisions with nonzero impact parameter.
We describe a class of non-Fermi liquid systems, using the AdS/CFT correspondence. The Fermi surfaces are studied by computing the response functions of fermionic operators. The scaling behavior near the Fermi surfaces is determined by conformal dimensions in an emergent IR CFT. The low-energy excitations near the Fermi momenta are not Landau quasiparticles. When the operator is marginal in the IR CFT, the full spectral function is precisely of the `marginal Fermi liquid' form, introduced as a phenomenological model of the `strange metal' phase of high temperature superconductors.
In the context of AdS/CFT correspondence the AdS_3/CFT_2 instance of the duality stands apart from other well studied cases, like AdS_5/CFT_4 or AdS_4/CFT_3. One of the reasons is that the CFT side of this duality is not a theory of matrices but rather a two dimensional orbifold based on the group of permutations. In this talk we will discuss some aspects of this theory. In particular a diagrammatic language, akin to Feynman diagrams used for gauge theories, will be developed.
For generic field theories at finite temperature, a power-law falloff of correlation functions of conserved currents at long times is a prediction of non-linear hydrodynamics. We demonstrate, through a one-loop computation in Einstein gravity in Anti de Sitter space, that this effect is reproduced by the dynamics of black hole horizons. The result is in agreement with the gauge-gravity correspondence.
Non-relativistic versions of the AdS/CFT conjecture have recently been investigated in some detail. These have primarily been in the context of the Schrodinger symmetry group. Here we talk of a study based on a different non-relativistic conformal symmetry: one obtained by a parametric contraction of the relativistic conformal group. The resulting Galilean conformal symmetry has the same number of generators as the relativistic symmetry group and thus is different from the Schrodinger group (which has fewer).
It has been conjectured that higher-dimensional rotating black holes become unstable at a sufficiently large value of the rotation, and that new black holes with pinched horizons appear at the threshold of the instability. We search numerically, and find, the stationary axisymmetric perturbations of Myers-Perry black holes with a single spin that mark the onset of the instability and the appearance of the new black hole phases. We also find new ultraspinning Gregory-Laflamme instabilities of rotating black strings and branes.
I will survey some open problems posed by experiments on condensed matter systems, such as the high temperature superconductors. I will argue that their solutions require analyses of strong-coupling regimes which cannot be addressed by conventional field-theoretic means. I will describe insights drawn from the AdS/CFT correspondence, and discuss the connections to theories with simple gravity duals.
Ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions are one of the most difficult problems for theoretical physicists: they probe non-abelian dynamics deep in the non-perturbative (strong coupling) regime in a many-body system, are highly dynamical (strong gradients), exhibit collective behavior, and involve phase transitions. Fluid dynamics with input from holography is surprisingly good at describing some aspects of experimental data in heavy-ion collisions.