Quantum Information and Graph Theory: Emerging Connections
Constructing good quantum LDPC codes remains an important problem in quantum coding theory. We contribute to the ongoing discussion on this topic by proposing two approaches to constructing quantum LDPC codes. In the first, we rely on an algebraic method that uses a redundant description of the parity check matrix to overcome the problem of 4-cycles in the Tanner graph that degrade the performance of iterative decoding. In the second we use the fact that subsystem coding can simplify the decoding process.
We investigate which families of quantum states can be used as resources for approximate and/or stochastic universal measurement-based quantum computation, in the sense that single-qubit operations and classical communication are sufficient to prepare (with some fixed precision and/or probability) any quantum state from the initial resource. We find entanglement-based criteria for non-universality in the approximate and/or stochastic case. By applying them, we are able to discard some families of states as not universal also in this weaker sense.
Quantum computers provide new resources to solve combinatorial optimization problems (COPs). Using techniques borrowed from quantum information theory, I will present a quantum algorithm that simulates classical annealing processes, where the (quantum) annealing rate greatly outperforms other classical methods like Markov chain Monte-Carlo based algorithms. Our quantum algorithm provides quadratic speedups to find both, the solution to particular instances of COPs, and the preparation of (quantum) Gibbs\' states.
I will present a new protocol that was developed entirely in the measurement-based model for quantum computation. Our protocol allows Alice to have Bob carry out a quantum computation for her such that Alice\'s inputs, outputs and computation remain perfectly private, and where Alice does not require any quantum computational power or memory. Alice only needs to be able to prepare single qubits from a finite set and send them to Bob, who has the balance of the required quantum computational resources.
We consider the question of forward and backward translation between measurement-based quantum computing, called patterns, and quantum circuit computation. It is known that the class of patterns with a particular properties, having flow, is in one-to-one correspondence with quantum circuits. However we show that a more general class of patterns, those having generalised flow, will sometime translate to imaginary circuits, quantum circuits with time-like curves.
I will talk about a scheme of the ground-code measurement-based quantum computer, which enjoys two major advantages. (i) Every logical qubit is encoded in the gapped degenerate ground subspace of a spin-1 chain with nearest-neighbor two-body interactions, so that it equips built-in robustness against noise.
One-way quantum computing allows any quantum algorithm to be implemented by the sole use of single-qubit measurements. The difficult part is to create a universal resource state on which the measurements are made. We propose to use continuous-variable (CV) entanglement in the optical frequency comb of a single optical parametric oscillator with a multimode pump to produce a very large CV graph state with a special 4-regular graph. This scheme is interesting because of its potential for scalability, although issues of error correction and fault tolerance are yet to be fully addressed.
We construct a family of time-independent nearest-neighbor Hamiltonians coupling eight-state systems on a 1D ring that enables universal quantum computation. Hamiltonians in this family can achieve universality either by driving a continuous-time quantum walk or by terminating an adiabatic algorithm. In either case, the universality property can be understood as arising from an efficient simulation of a programmable quantum circuit. Using gadget perturbation theory, one can demonstrate the same kind of universality for related Hamiltonian families acting on qubits in 2D.
In this talk, two specific directions of research in quantum information are presented which could potentially gain from graph theory. The first is the study of quantum communication using systems of perpetually interacting qubits (or spins) as a databus. After introducing the topic through the simplest examples of linear chains of spins as transmitters of quantum information, we briefly mention existing work on quantum communication through more general graphs of spins.