This series consists of talks in the area of Foundations of Quantum Theory. Seminar and group meetings will alternate.
Although it can only
be argued to have become consequential in the study of quantum cosmology, the
question ``Why do we observe a classical world? " has been one of the
biggest preoccupations of quantum foundations. In the consistent
histories formalism, the question is shifted to an analysis of
the telltale sign of quantum mechanics: superposition of states. In
the consistent histories formalism, histories of the system which
``decohere", i.e. fall out of superposition or have negligible
In systems described
by Ising-like Hamiltonians, such as spin-lattices, the Bell Inequality can be
strongly violated. Surprisingly, these systems are both local and
non-superdeterministic. They are local, because 1) they include only local,
near-neighbor interaction, 2) they satisfy, accordingly, the Clauser-Horne
factorability condition, and 3) they can violate the Bell Inequality also in dynamic
Bell experiments. Starting from this result we construct an elementary
Coalgebras
are a flexible tool commonly used in computer science to model abstract devices
and systems. Coalgebraic models also come with a natural notion of logics
for the systems being modelled. In this talk we will introduce coalgebras
and aim to illustrate their usefulness for modelling physical systems.
Extending earlier work of Abramsky, we will show how a weakening of the
usual morphisms for coalgebras provides the flexibility to model quantum
systems in an easy to motivate manner.
We describe a notion of state for a quantum system which is given in terms of a collection of empirically realizable probability distributions and is formally analogous to the familiar concept of state from classical statistical mechanics. We first demonstrate the mathematical equivalence of this new notion to the standard quantum notion of density matrix.
Quantum observables
are commonly described by self-adjoint operators on a Hilbert space H. I will
show that one can equivalently describe observables by real-valued functions on
the set P(H) of projections, which we call q-observable functions. If one regards
a quantum observable as a random variable, the corresponding q-observable
function can be understood as a quantum quantile function, generalising the
classical notion. I will briefly sketch how q-observable functions relate to
A century after the advent of Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity, both theories enjoy incredible empirical success, constituting the cornerstones of modern physics. Yet, paradoxically, they suffer from deep-rooted, so-far intractable, conflicts. Motivations for violations of the notion of
Physical theories ought to be built up from colloquial notions such as ’long bodies’, ’energetic sources’ etc. in terms of which one can define pre-theoretic ordering relations such as ’longer than’, ’more energetic than’. One of the questions addressed in previous work is how to make the transition from these pre-theoretic notions to quantification, such as making the transition from the ordering relation of ’longer than’ (if one body covers the other) to the notion of how much longer.
Weak values were introduced by Aharonov, Albert, and Vaidman 25 years ago, but it is only in the last 10 years that they have begun to enter into mainstream physics. I will introduce weak values as done by AAV, but then give them a modern definition in terms of generalized measurements. I will discuss their properties and their uses in experiment. Finally I will talk about what they have to contribute to quantum foundations.
The process of canonical quantization:is reexamined with the goal of
ensuring there is only one reality, where $\hbar>0$, in which classical
and quantum theories coexist. Two results are a clarification of the effect of
canonical coordinate transformations and the role of Cartesian coordinates.
Other results provide validation
The
"psi-epistemic" view is that the quantum state does not represent a
state of the world, but a state of knowledge about the world. It is
motivated, in part, by the observation of qualitative similarities between
characteristic properties of non-orthogonal quantum wavefunctions and between
overlapping classical probability distributions. It might be suggested
that this gives a natural explanation for these properties, which seem puzzling
for the alternative "psi-ontic" view. I will examine two such