This series consists of weekly discussion sessions on foundations of quantum Theory and quantum information theory. The sessions start with an informal exposition of an interesting topic, research result or important question in the field. Everyone is strongly encouraged to participate with questions and comments.
Over the last twenty years, quantum information and quantum computing have profoundly shaped our thinking about the basic concepts of quantum physics. But can these insights also shape the way we /teach/ quantum mechanics to undergraduate physics students? A recent adventure in textbook-writing suggests some strategies and dilemmas.
We study a Hamiltonian system describing a three-spin 1/2 cluster like interaction competing with an Ising-like exchange. We show that a cluster state, the ground state of the Hamiltonian in the absence of the Ising term, is provided by a hidden order of topological nature. In the presence of the cluster and Ising couplings, a continuous quantum phase transition occurs in the system, directly connecting a local broken symmetry phase to a cluster phase with the hidden order. At the critical point the Hamiltonian is self-dual.
In this talk I review some joint work (arXiv:1008.2147) with Bill Munro and Tim Spiller on the task we call "quantum tagging", that is, authenticating the classical location of a classical tagging device by sending and receiving quantum signals from suitably located distant sites, in an environment controlled by an adversary whose quantum information processing and transmitting power is unbounded. Simple security models for this task will be presented. It will be shown that (among other protocols) recent protocols claimed to be unconditionally secure by Malaney and by Chandran et al.
Fibonacci anyons are the simplest system of anyons capable of implementing universal topological quantum computation, an area which is of intense theoretical and experimental interest. Recent studies have shown that for nearest-neighbour interactions, the properties of the ground state of a 1-D chain of Fibonacci anyons may be modeled using a spin chain, and are related to specific conformal field theories.
The arrow of time dilemma: the laws of physics are invariant for time inversion, whereas the familiar phenomena we see everyday are not (i.e. entropy increases). I show that, within a quantum mechanical framework, all phenomena which leave a trail of information behind (and hence can be studied by physics) are those where entropy necessarily increases or remains constant. All phenomena where the entropy decreases must not leave any information of their having happened. This situation is completely indistinguishable from their not having happened at all.
Shared entanglement between sender and receiver can enable more errors to be corrected than with a standard quantum error-correcting code. This extra error correction can be used either to boost the rate of the code--commonly seen in quantum codes constructed from classical linear codes--or to increase the error-correcting power of the code (as represented by, for example, the code distance).
Topological phases in spin systems are exciting frontiers of research with intimate connections to quantum coding theory. However, there is a disconnection between quantum codes and the idea of topology, in the absence of geometry and physical realizability. Here, we introduce a toy model, in which quantum codes are constrained to not only have a local geometric description, but also have translation and scale symmetries. These additional physical constraints enable us to assign topologically invariant properties to geometric shapes of logical operators of the code.
In recent years the characterization of many-body ground states via the entanglement of their wave-function has attracted a lot of attention. One useful measure of entanglement is provided by the entanglement entropy S.
Are Quantum Mechanics and Special Relativity unrelated theories? Is Quantum Field Theory an additional theoretical layer over them? Where the quantization rules and the Plank constant come from? All these questions can find answer in the computational paradigm: "the universe is a huge quantum computer".
Dualities appear in nearly all disciplines of physics and play a central role in statistical mechanics and field theory. I will discuss in a pedagogical way our recent findings motivated by a quest for a simple unifying framework for the detection and treatment of dualities.