This series consists of talks in the areas of Cosmology, Gravitation and Particle Physics.
Linear cosmological perturbation theory is pivotal to a theoretical understanding of current cosmological experimental data provided e.g. by cosmic microwave anisotropy probes. A key issue in this theory is to extract the gauge invariant degrees of freedom which allow unambiguous comparison between theory and experiment. In this talk we will present a manifeslty gauge invariant formulation of general relativistic perturbation theory.
We have two strong reasons to argue that Einstein\'s theory of general relativity may be incomplete. First, given that it cannot be expressed within a consistent quantum field theory there is reason to expect higher energy corrections. Second, the observation that we are undergoing a current epoch of accelerated expansion might indicate that our understanding of gravity breaks down at the largest scales.
I will discuss a new method of inflaton potential reconstruction that combines the flow formalism, which is a stochastic method of inflationary model generation, with an exact numerical calculation of the mode equations of quantum fluctuations. This technique allows one to explore regions of the inflationary parameter space yielding spectra that are not well parameterized as power-laws. We use this method to generate an ensemble of generalized spectral shapes that provide equally good fits to current CMB and LSS as data as do simpler power-law spectra.
The detection of primordial non-Gaussianity could provide a powerful means to rule out various inflationary scenarios. Although scale-invariant non-Gaussianity is currently best constrained by the Cosmic Microwave Background, single-field inflation models with changing sound speed can have strongly scale dependent non-Gaussianity. I will discuss the theoretical motivation for such models and present work on the likely ability of current and future large scale structure measurements to constrain them.
f(R) theories are an alternative approach at the phenomenon of cosmic acceleration, in which the Einstein-Hilbert action for gravity is modified by adding a function of the Ricci scalar, f(R). While at the background level viable f(R) models must closely mimic LCDM, the difference in their prediction for the growth of large scale structures can be sufficiently large to leave detectable signatures in future surveys. In this talk, after reviewing the conditions for the background viability of f(R) theories, I will focus on scalar perturbations.
The non-Gaussianity of the primordial cosmological perturbations will be strongly constrained by future observations like Planck. It will provide us with important information about the early universe and will be used to discriminate among models. I will review how different models of the early universe can generate different amount and shapes of non-Gaussianity.
The Origin of the Large Scale Structure is one of the key issue in Cosmology.
A plausible assumption is that structures grow via gravitational amplification
and collapse of density fluctuations that are small at early times.
The growth history of cosmological fluctuations is a fundamental observable
which helps in hunting for evidences of new physics, currently missing from our picture
of the universe, but potentially crucial to explain its past, present and future history.
I'll show how we investigated if the gradual growth of structures observed
We introduce a framework that allows to calculate cosmological perturbations in a gauge invariant manner to any order. The two main features of this framework are to take physical observables as basic objects and to treat the variables describing the background geometry as fully dynamical. Backreaction effects can therefore naturally adressed. At the end I will mention applications to Loop Quantum Cosmology.
Dark matter and dark energy can be explained without resorting to exotic fields if one accepts that the geometry of spacetime is governed by suitable generalized gravitational theories based on Lagrangians that are non-linear in the curvature of a metric and/or a torsionless linear connection, i.e. in second order and first order formalisms.