This series consists of talks in the areas of Cosmology, Gravitation and Particle Physics.
While understanding the evolution of galaxies is one of the major themes of
contemporary astronomy, most empirical studies focus only on the evolution
of distribution functions (e.g., the luminosity function), effectively
treating galaxies in isolation. The new generation of large imaging and
I will discuss a powerful way to examine the nature of dark energy using a measurement of the growth of galaxy clusters over cosmic time. A novel technique that uses the Cosmic Microwave Background as a backlight allows the detection of galaxy clusters out to the time of their first formation. Using this technique, I will present the first constraints on cosmological parameters obtained with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, as well as exciting prospects for the future.
Black holes are associated with a variety of the most extreme and counter-intuitive phenomena in astronomy and physics. However, despite the passage of nearly 40 years since the discovery of the first strong black hole candidate, we have scant evidence that general relativity provides an accurate description of gravity in the immediate vicinity of astrophysical black holes. Over the next few years this will change dramatically.
In the picture of eternal inflation, our observable universe resides inside a single bubble nucleated from an inflating false vacuum. Some of the theories giving rise to eternal inflation predict that we have causal access to collisions with other bubble universes, providing an opportunity to confront these theories with observation. In this talk, I will outline progress on the theoretical description of eternal inflation and bubble collisions, and present results from the first search for the effects of bubble collisions in the WMAP 7-year data.
Theories with extra dimensions naturally give rise to a large landscape of vacua stabilized by flux. I will show that the fastest decay is a giant leap to a wildly distant minimum, in which many different fluxes discharge at once. Indeed, the fastest decay is frequently the giantest leap of all, where all the fluxes discharge at once, which destabilizes the extra dimensions and begets a bubble of nothing. Finally, I will discuss how these giant leaps are mediated by the nucleation of "monkey branes" that wrap the extra dimensions.
Five decades ago, Aharonov and Bohm illustrated the indispensable role of the vector potential in quantum dynamics by showing (theoretically) that scattering electrons around a solenoid, no matter how thin, would give rise to a non-trivial cross section that had a periodic dependence on the product of charge and total magnetic flux. (This periodic dependence is due to the topological nature of the
I will discuss the emergence of large, localized, pseudo-stable configurations (oscillons) from inflaton fragmentation at the end of inflation. Remarkably, the emergent oscillons take up >50 per cent of the energy density of the inflaton. First, I will give an overview of oscillons, provide some analytic solutions and discuss their stability. Then, I will discuss the conditions necessary for their emergence and provide estimates for their cosmological number density. I will show results from detailed 3+1-dimensional numerical simulations and compare them to the analytic estimates.
I introduce a general method for constraining the shape of the inflationary potential from Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature and polarization power spectra. This approach relates the CMB observables to the shape of the inflaton potential via a single source function that is responsible for the observable features in the initial curvature power spectrum. The source function is, to an excellent approximation, simply related to the slope and curvature of the inflaton potential, even in the presence of large or rapidly changing deviations from scale-free initial conditions.
The entropy outside of an event horizon can never decrease if one includes a term proportional to the horizon area. For a long time, this astonishing result had only been shown for quantum fields that are in an approximately steady state. I will describe a new proof of the generalized second law for arbitrary slices of semiclassical, rapidly-changing horizons. I will start with the simplest case, Rindler horizons, and then describe how the proof can be adapted to other cases (black holes, de Sitter, etc.) by restricting the field algebra to the horizon.