This series consists of talks in the areas of Cosmology, Gravitation and Particle Physics.
The Effective Filed Theory of Large Scale Structures provides a novel framework to analytically compute the clustering of the Large Scale Structures in the weakly non-linear regime in a consistent and reliable way. The theory that describes the long wavelength fluctuations is obtained after integrating out the short distance modes and adding suitable operators that allow to correctly reconstruct the effect of short distance fluctuations at long distances. A few observables have been computed so far, and the results are extremely promising.
By now, both black hole astrophysics and big bang cosmology are empirically well-established disciplines of physics and astronomy. They are also the only circumstances in nature where Einstein's general relativity can be seen in its full glory, and yet contain within them, its eventual and inevitable folly. Here, I will outline subtle lines evidence for why a phenomenologically successful description of big bang cosmology and black hole horizons may be intimately connected.
I will discuss the evolution of a quantum scalar field in a toy universe which has three stages of evolution, viz., (i) an early (inflationary) de Sitter phase (ii) radiation-dominated phase and (iii) late-time (cosmological constant dominated) de Sitter phase. Using the Schr\"odinger picture, the scalar field equations are solved separately for the three stages and matched at the transition points. The boundary conditions are chosen so that field modes in the early de Sitter phase evolve from the Bunch-Davies vacuum state.
Peculiar velocities - deviations from Hubble expansion - are the only practical probe of the growth of matter density fluctuations on very large scales in the nearby Universe. I will discuss recent measurements of quantities of cosmological interest from our group and others. One is the "bulk" flow of nearby galaxies with respect to the frame defined by the Cosmic Microwave Background, and what this tells us about fluctuations on large very spatial scales. The second is the measurement of the growth rate of fluctuations, a critical test of Lambda CDM and modified gravity models.
There need not be any conflict between unitarity, locality, and regularity of the horizon in black hole evaporation. I discuss a scenario in which the initial collapse that forms the black hole results in a small non-singular core inside an inner event horizon. This core grows as the result of quantum back-reaction associated with the increasing entanglement entropy of Hawking radiation quanta and their partners trapped inside the core.
The talk is based on joint work with Yuri Manin (arXiv:1402.2158). Using algebro-geometric blowups it is possible to construct a family of models of gluing of aeons across a Big-Bang type singularity, which includes the case of Penrose's conformally cyclic cosmology, as well as inflationary multiverse models generalizing the "eternal symmetree", and BKLL mixmaster type cosmologies. Using the mixmaster dynamics, formulated in terms of elliptic curves and modular curves, we speculate on the geometry of cosmological time near the gluing of aeons.
Accreting supermassive black holes in the centres of galaxies (i.e. Active Galactic Nuclei - AGN) are now known to play a prominent role in the growth of galaxies through cosmic time. The fundamental parameters to explain the whole range of observed properties of these accreting systems, however, is still elusive. We will present some results from multi-wavelength investigations of the nature of accreting supermassive black holes, including those that produce low kinetic power jets as well as high kinetic power, relativistic jets.
I will try to explain how cosmological coincidence of the two values, the matter energy density and the dark energy density, at the present epoch based on a single scalar field model whith a quartic potential, non-mimimally interacting with gravity. Dark energy in this model originates from the potential energy of the scalar field, which is sourced by the appearance of non-relativistic matter at the time z~ 10^10. No fine tuning of parameter are neccessary.
The singularity theorems of general relativity tell us that spacetime singularities form in gravitational collapse, but tell us very little about the precise nature of these singularities. More information can be found using analytic approximations and numerical simulations. It is conjectured that inside black holes are two types of singularities: one that is spacelike, local, and oscillatory, and the other that is null and weak.
A variable speed of light (VSL) cosmology is developed with a spontaneous breaking of Lorentz invariance in the early universe. A non-minimal electromagnetic coupling to curvature and the resulting quantum electrodynamic vacuum polarization dispersive medium can produce c >> c_{0} in the early universe, where c_{0} is the measured speed of light today.