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New Cosmological Constraints on Primordial Black Holes

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Constraints on the formation of primordial black holes - especially the ones which are small enough to evaporate - provide a unique probe of the early universe, high energy physics and extra dimensions. For evaporating black holes, the dominant constraints are associated with big bang nucleosynthesis and the extragalactic photon background, but there are also other limits associated with the cosmic microwave background, cosmic rays and various types of relic particles. For larger non-evaporating black holes, important constraints come from their gravitational and astrophysical effects. Small non-primordial evaporating black holes may be produced in the LHC if there are large extra dimensions and this would also have important implications for the early universe.