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Gapless spin liquids in frustrated Heisenberg models

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We present our recent numerical calculations for the Heisenberg model on the square and
Kagome lattices, showing that gapless spin liquids may be stabilized in highly-frustrated
regimes. In particular, we start from Gutzwiller-projected fermionic states that may
describe magnetically disordered phases,[1] and apply few Lanczos steps in order to improve
their accuracy. Thanks to the variance extrapolation technique,[2] accurate estimations of
the energies are possible, for both the ground state and few low-energy excitations.
Our approach suggests that magnetically disordered phases can be described by Abrikosov
fermions coupled to gauge fields.

For the Kagome lattice, we find that a gapless U(1) spin liquid with Dirac cones
is competitive with previously proposed gapped spin liquids when only the nearest-neighbor
antiferromagnetic interaction is present.[3,4] The inclusion of a next-nearest-neighbor term
lead to a Z_2 gapped spin liquid,[5] in agreement with density-matrix renormalization group
calculations.[6] In the Heisenberg model on the square lattice with both nearest- and
next-nearest-neighbor interactions, a Z_2 spin liquid with gapless spinon excitations is
stabilized in the frustrated regime.[7] This results are (partially) in agreement with recent
density-matrix renormalization group on large cylinders.[8]

[1] X.-G. Wen, Phys. Rev. B {\bf 44}, 2664 (1991); Phys. Rev. B {\bf 65}, 165113 (2002).
[2] S. Sorella, Phys. Rev. B {\bf 64}, 024512 (2001).
[3] Y. Iqbal, F. Becca, S. Sorella, and D. Poilblanc, Phys. Rev. B 87, 060405(R) (2013).
[4] Y. Iqbal, D. Poilblanc, and F. Becca, Phys. Rev. B 89, 020407(R) (2014).
[5] W.-J. Hu, Y. Iqbal, F. Becca, D. Poilblanc, and D. Sheng, unpublished.
[6] H.-C. Jiang, Z. Wang, and L. Balents, Nat. Phys. 8, 902 (2012);
S. Yan, D. Huse, and S. White, Science 332, 1173 (2011).
[7] W.-J. Hu, F. Becca, A. Parola, and S. Sorella, Phys. Rev. B 88, 060402(R) (2013).
[8] S.-S. Gong, W.Z., D.N. Sheng, O.I. Motrunich, and M.P.A. Fisher, arXiv:1311.5962 (2013).