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Closed time-like curves in measurement-based quantum computation

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Many results have been recently obtained regarding the power of hypothetical closed time-like curves (CTC’s) in quantum computation. Most of them have been derived using Deutsch’s influential model for quantum CTCs [D. Deutsch, Phys. Rev. D 44, 3197 (1991)]. Deutsch’s model demands self-consistency for the time-travelling system, but in the absence of (hypothetical) physical CTCs, it cannot be tested experimentally. In this paper we show how the one-way model of measurement-based quantum computation (MBQC) can be used to test Deutsch’s model for CTCs. Using the stabilizer formalism, we identify predictions that MBQC makes about a specific class of CTCs involving travel in time of quantum systems. Using a simple example we show that Deutsch’s formalism leads to predictions conflicting with those of the one-way model. There exists an alternative, little-discussed model for quantum time-travel due to Bennett and Schumacher (in unpublished work, see http://bit.ly/cjWUT2), which was rediscovered recently by Svetlichny [arXiv:0902.4898v1]. This model uses quantum teleportation to simulate (probabilistically) what would happen if one sends quantum states back in time. We show how the Bennett/ Schumacher/ Svetlichny (BSS) model for CTCs fits in naturally within the formalism of MBQC. We identify a class of CTC’s in this model that can be simulated deterministically using techniques associated with the stabilizer formalism. We also identify the fundamental limitation of Deutsch's model that accounts for its conflict with the predictions of MBQC and the BSS model. This work was done in collaboration with Raphael Dias da Silva and Elham Kashefi, and has appeared in preprint format (see website). Website: http://arxiv.org/abs/1003.4971