Since 2002 Perimeter Institute has been recording seminars, conference talks, and public outreach events using video cameras installed in our lecture theatres. Perimeter now has 7 formal presentation spaces for its many scientific conferences, seminars, workshops and educational outreach activities, all with advanced audio-visual technical capabilities. Recordings of events in these areas are all available On-Demand from this Video Library and on Perimeter Institute Recorded Seminar Archive (PIRSA). PIRSA is a permanent, free, searchable, and citable archive of recorded seminars from relevant bodies in physics. This resource has been partially modelled after Cornell University's arXiv.org.
Official U.S. time is currently realized by an ensemble of commercial cesium-beam atomic clocks and hydrogen masers. Cesium-fountain devices presently serve as ultimate frequency references and help to define the SI second. The present quandary is: these microwave-based standards are rapidly becoming outmatched by new optical atomic frequency references---by a factor of 1,000 in stability, and perhaps a factor of 100 in accuracy. I will survey the ongoing optical atomic clock projects at NIST and highlight related work in optical time and frequency measurement and transfer.
We report frequency comparison of two Sr optical lattice clocks operated at cryogenic temperature to dramatically reduce blackbody radiation shift. After 11 measurements performed over a month, the two cryo-clocks agree to within (-1.1±1.6)×〖10〗^(-18).
Current status of a frequency ratio measurement of Hg/Sr clocks and a remote comparison of cryo-clocks located at Riken and University of Tokyo will be mentioned.
The precision of atomic clocks continues to improve at a rapid pace: While caesium clocks now reach relative systematic uncertainties of a few 10-16, several optical clocks based on different atomic systems are now reported with uncertainties in the 10-18 range. This variety of precise clocks will allow for improved tests of fundamental physics, especially quantitative tests of relativity and searches for variations of constants. Laser-cooled and trapped ions permit the study of strongly forbidden transitions with extremely small natural linewidths and long coherence times.
In the coming years, LHC experiments will measure Higgs properties, such as its couplings, with increasing precision. Electron-positron Higgs factories, such as the ILC or TLEP, would be able to achieve even better precision. In this talk, I will discuss some of the physics questions that can be addressed by a precision Higgs coupling measurement program. First, the issue of naturalness of the electroweak scale can be addressed in a robust, model-independent manner.
A variable speed of light (VSL) cosmology is developed with a spontaneous breaking of Lorentz invariance in the early universe. A non-minimal electromagnetic coupling to curvature and the resulting quantum electrodynamic vacuum polarization dispersive medium can produce c >> c0 in the early universe, where c0 is the measured speed of light today.
Rideout and Sorkin proposed a classical dynamics for causal sets based upon a sequential growth model. Comparing it with models for sequential growth in other systems, and with the dual goals of generating manifold-like causal sets and finding a quantum dynamics for them, we propose some modifications to their model. The resulting, admittedly speculative, proposal is a type of quantum random walk. We explore its properties in some simple cases.
In scalar-tensor gravity, black holes do not obey the Jebsen-Birkhoff theorem. Non-isolated black holes can be highly dynamical and the teleological concept of event horizon is replaced by the apparent or trapping horizon. Dynamical solutions describing inhomogeneities embedded in cosmological "backgrounds" and the phenomenology of their apparent horizons, which often appear/vanish in pairs, will be described. Isolated black holes, in contrast, have no hair and are the same as in general relativity.