Since 2002 Perimeter Institute has been recording seminars, conference talks, and public outreach events using video cameras installed in our lecture theatres. Perimeter now has 7 formal presentation spaces for its many scientific conferences, seminars, workshops and educational outreach activities, all with advanced audio-visual technical capabilities. Recordings of events in these areas are all available On-Demand from this Video Library and on Perimeter Institute Recorded Seminar Archive (PIRSA). PIRSA is a permanent, free, searchable, and citable archive of recorded seminars from relevant bodies in physics. This resource has been partially modelled after Cornell University's arXiv.org.
Observations of the Milky Way by the SPI/INTEGRAL satellite have confirmed the presence of a strong 511 KeV gamma-ray line emission from the bulge, which require an intense source of positrons in the galactic center. These observations are hard to account for by conventional astrophysical scenarios, whereas other proposals, such as light DM, face stringent constraints from the diffuse gamma-ray background. I will describe how light superconducting strings could be the source of the observed 511 KeV emission.
Graphity models are characterized by configuration spaces in which states correspond to graphs and Hamiltonians that depend on local properties of graphs such as degrees of vertices and numbers of shortcycles. It has been argued that such models can be useful in studying how an extended geometry might emerge from a background independent dynamical system. As statistical systems, graphity models can be studied analytically by estimating their partition functions or numerically by Monte Carlo simulations. In this talk I will present recent results obtained using both of these approaches.
It is well known that the derivation of the Bell Inequality rests on two major assumptions, usually called outcome independence and parameter independence. Parameter independence seems to have a straightforward motivation: it expresses a non-signalling requirement between space-like separated sites and is thus motivated by locality. The status of outcome independence is much les clear. Many authors have argued that this assumption too expresses a locality requirement, in the form of a \'screening off\' condition.
In this talk I will analyse the stochastic background of gravitational waves coming from a first order phase transition in the early universe. The signal is potentially detectable by the space interferometer LISA. I will present a detailed analytical model of the gravitational wave production by the collision of broken phase bubbles, together with analytical results for the gravitational wave power spectrum. Gravitational wave production by turbulence and magnetic fields will also be briefly discussed.
We discuss recent developments in the study of black holes and similar compact objects in string theory. The focus is on how these solutions are effected by higher-derivative terms in an effective action. The setting of this investigation is an off-shell formulation of five-dimensional supergravity, including terms of order four-derivatives whose precise form are determined by embedding this theory in M-theory.
Many numerical studies show that dark matter halos have a plethora of substructure, down to the smallest resolved scales. However, the very bottom of the Cold Dark Matter (CDM) hierarchy at a few earth masses, where the spectral index n approaches -3 and structure begins to form simultaneously on a variety of scales, remains relatively unexplored. It is possible that the subhalo mass distribution, which appears to be described by a simple power-law down to mass scales 10^6 solar masses, remains unchanged and independent of scale and n.