Since 2002 Perimeter Institute has been recording seminars, conference talks, and public outreach events using video cameras installed in our lecture theatres. Perimeter now has 7 formal presentation spaces for its many scientific conferences, seminars, workshops and educational outreach activities, all with advanced audio-visual technical capabilities. Recordings of events in these areas are all available On-Demand from this Video Library and on Perimeter Institute Recorded Seminar Archive (PIRSA). PIRSA is a permanent, free, searchable, and citable archive of recorded seminars from relevant bodies in physics. This resource has been partially modelled after Cornell University's arXiv.org.
We present analytically solvable nonlinear models of structure formation in a Universe with only dust, using LTB solutions. We show that the luminosity distance-redshift relation has significant corrections at low redshift (Doppler effect). We discuss different possibilities that could further enhance this effect and mimick Dark Energy. We find negligible integrated effect, suppressed by $(L/R_{H})^3$ (where $L$ is the size of the structure, and $R_{H}$ is the Hubble radius) and we make contact with cosmological perturbation theory.
We consider the effect that dynamical selection principles could have on the string landscape and for determining the value of the cosmological constant. The underlying symmetries of string theory, along with the dynamics of moduli in the low energy effective field theory, seem to suggest that not all vacua are created equal. However, in some simple models many vacua are alike and this degeneracy may suggest a *non-anthropic* approach to understanding the observed value of the cosmological constant.
Brane worlds may provide insight into the cosmological constant problem because a large vacuum energy on the brane can curve the extra dimensions rather than the local 4D spacetime. Moreover, such models with supersymmetric large extra dimensions reveal a tantalizing numerology, in which the size of the two extra dimensions can lead not only to the electroweak hierarchy but also to the observed dark energy scale. I will review this proposal, its promises and problems, and then describe some of the novel physics that can arise in 6D brane worlds.
One of the possible explanations for the current acceleration of the universe comes from a coupling between the Dark Energy and the Neutrino sectors. This coupling causes the neutrino mass to vary with cosmic time, what opens a new window to constrain this dark energy candidate. In this work, we analyze the mass-varying neutrino scenario in a model independent way, focusing on its effects for the Cosmic Microwave Background and Large Scale Structure.
A modification of Gravity in the low-curvature regime may account for the late time acceleration of our universe, and is therefore an interesting alternative to Dark Energy.In such models, the modified Einstein equations admit self-accelerated solutions in the presence of negligible matter. At the level of perturbation theory,the modified equations give rise to new dynamics for the perturbations of the metric and matter.
I will present the embedding of runaway quintessence models in supergravity coupled to observable matter and hidden supersymmetry breaking. Serious obstructions appear either in the gravitational sector of the theory or cosmologically. Alternatives will be discussed.
We explore the hypothesis that a dynamical dark energy is related to a time-variation of the fundamental mass scale. A dilatation anomaly induced by quantum fluctuations could explain the small value of the present dark energy. Reformulated as a scalar field theory this would predict a quintessence potential which asymptotically relaxes to zero rather than to a nonvanishing constant. An observable consequence of such a scenario results in "early dark energy " contributing a few percent to the energy density of the Universe even at high redshift.