Since 2002 Perimeter Institute has been recording seminars, conference talks, and public outreach events using video cameras installed in our lecture theatres. Perimeter now has 7 formal presentation spaces for its many scientific conferences, seminars, workshops and educational outreach activities, all with advanced audio-visual technical capabilities. Recordings of events in these areas are all available On-Demand from this Video Library and on Perimeter Institute Recorded Seminar Archive (PIRSA). PIRSA is a permanent, free, searchable, and citable archive of recorded seminars from relevant bodies in physics. This resource has been partially modelled after Cornell University's arXiv.org.
A prime challenge to our understanding of galaxy formation concerns the scarcity of dwarf galaxies compared with the numerous low-mass halos expected in the current ΛCDM paradigm. This is usually accounted for by assuming that energetic feedback from evolving stars confines dwarf galaxy formation to relatively massive halos spanning a narrow mass range. I will highlight a number of observations that may be used to test this assumption and discuss the puzzles and challenges that arise from this analysis.
According to the Newtonian intuition, a constant gravitational field has no physical effect on a system since it can always be redefined, and a homogeneous gradient of the gravitational field (i.e. a homogeneous gravitational force) is equivalent to an accelerated reference frame. I will show how to extend this intuition to cosmological scales; in the presence of a single clock a constant curvature perturbation and its gradient can be set to zero through a coordinate transformation.
Pure states and pure transformations play a crucial role in most of the recent reconstructions of quantum theory. In the frameworks of general probabilistic theories, purity is defined in terms of probabilistic mixtures and bears an intuitive interpretation of ``maximal knowledge" of the state of the system or of the evolution undergone by it. On the other hand, many quantum features do not need the probabilistic structure of the theory.
In unidirectional communication theory, two of the most prominent problems are those of compressing a source of information and of transmitting data noiselessly over a noisy channel. In 1948, Shannon introduced information theory as a tool to address both of these problems. Since then, information theory has flourished into an important field of its own. It has also been successfully extended to the quantum setting, where it has also served to address questions about quantum source compression and transmission of classical and quantum data over noisy quantum channels.
Quantum many-body systems ranging from a many-electron atom to a solid material are described by effective Hamiltonians which are obtained from more accurate Hamiltonians by neglecting or treating weak interactions perturbatively. Quantum complexity theory asks about the quantum computational power of such quantum many-body models for both practical as well as fundamental purposes.
We present a first principles approach to a probabilistic description of nature based on two guiding principles: spacetime locality and operationalism. No notion of time or metric is assumed, neither any specific physical model. Remarkably, the emerging framework converges with the recently proposed positive formalism of quantum theory, obtained constructively from known quantum physics. However, it also seems to embrace classical physics.