Since 2002 Perimeter Institute has been recording seminars, conference talks, and public outreach events using video cameras installed in our lecture theatres. Perimeter now has 7 formal presentation spaces for its many scientific conferences, seminars, workshops and educational outreach activities, all with advanced audio-visual technical capabilities. Recordings of events in these areas are all available On-Demand from this Video Library and on Perimeter Institute Recorded Seminar Archive (PIRSA). PIRSA is a permanent, free, searchable, and citable archive of recorded seminars from relevant bodies in physics. This resource has been partially modelled after Cornell University's arXiv.org.
The EotWash group at the University of Washington has developed a set of torsion balance
instruments to probe the properties of gravity and to search for new weak forces. Current efforts
focus on improved tests of the principle of equivalence, the inverse square law at short distances,
and spin-coupled interactions. These experiments and prospects for the future will be discussed.
Some theories predict a short-range component to the gravitational force, typically modeled as a Yukawa modification of the gravitational potential. This force is usually detected by measuring the motion of a mechanical oscillator driven by an external mass. In this talk I will discuss such an apparatus optimized for use in the 10-100 micron distance range. The setup consists of a cantilever-style silicon nitride oscillator suspended above a rotating drive mass.
A popular alternative to dark energy in explaining the current acceleration of the universe discovered with type Ia supernovae is modifying gravity at cosmological scales. But this is risky: even when everything is well for cosmology, other fundamental and experimental aspects of gravity must be checked in order for the theory to be viable. The successes of modified gravity and its challenges, which have generated a large body of literature in the past ten years, will be reviewed.
Precision atom interferometry is poised to become a powerful tool for discovery in fundamental physics. Towards this end, I will describe recent, record-breaking atom interferometry experiments performed in a 10 meter drop tower that demonstrate long-lived quantum superposition states with macroscopic spatial separations.
I will discuss experiments we are conducting for precision tests of gravitational physics using cold atom interferometry. In particular, I will report on the measurement of the gravitational constant G with a Rb Raman interferometer, and on experiments based on Bloch oscillations of Sr atoms confined in an optical lattice for gravity measurements at small spatial scales and for testing Einstein equivalence principle.
Satellite geodesy uses the timing of photons from satellites to determine the Earth’s time varying shape, gravity field, and orientation in space, with accuracies of 100 seconds, corresponding to speeds
I will discuss present limits on the variation of the fine structure constant and the electron to proton mass ratio from the astrophysical data on the spectra from the interstellar gas medium. The emphasis will be made on the infrared and microwave spectra. Such spectra may be 2 - 3 orders of magnitude more sensitive to the variation of constants than optical spectra.
Official U.S. time is currently realized by an ensemble of commercial cesium-beam atomic clocks and hydrogen masers. Cesium-fountain devices presently serve as ultimate frequency references and help to define the SI second. The present quandary is: these microwave-based standards are rapidly becoming outmatched by new optical atomic frequency references---by a factor of 1,000 in stability, and perhaps a factor of 100 in accuracy. I will survey the ongoing optical atomic clock projects at NIST and highlight related work in optical time and frequency measurement and transfer.