This series consists of talks in areas where gravity is the main driver behind interesting or peculiar phenomena, from astrophysics to gravity in higher dimensions.
The unexpected diversity of planetary systems has posed challenges to our classical understanding of planetary formation. For instance, Jupiter sized planets have been detected with short orbital periods of a few days in misaligned orbits with respect to the spin-axis of their host stars. I will first describe the statistical implication of detecting misaligned hot Jupiters and will suggest how dynamical interactions between an outer perturber and the inner planet, can naturally lead to the formation of such misaligned hot Jupiters.
Conventional equations of state suggest that in complete gravitational collapse a singular state of matter with infinite density could be reached finally to a black hole, the characteristic feature of which is its apparent horizon, where light rays are first trapped. The loss of information to the outside world this implies gives rise to serious difficulties with well-established principles of quantum mechanics and statistical physics.
This talk will explore the applications of the computing power of numerical relativity to gravitational theories beyond general relativity. Specifically, I will consider dynamical Chern-Simons gravity, which has roots in string theory and loop quantum gravity. I will discuss our formalism and efforts to simulate binary black holes in this theory to generate waveforms LIGO and LISA. Additionally, I will discuss the generation of numerical black hole solutions in this theory, and applications to probing black hole shadows with the Event Horizon Telescope.
Black-hole recoils are arguably the strong-gravity phenomena with the most striking astrophysical consequences. In the late inspiral and final coalescence of black-hole binaries, anisotropic emission of gravitational waves causes significant linear momentum loss. The remnant black hole, therefore, recoils in the opposite direction. These final kicks can reach magnitudes up to 5000 km/s (“superkicks”), larger than the escape speed of even the most massive galaxies, thus opening the possibility of black hole ejections.
The recent detections of gravitational waves from compact object binary
lead to detailed investigations of the origin of these objects. In my talk
I will discuss the questions: What is the astrophysical origin of these objects?
What do these detections tell us about the formation of black holes and neutron stars?
What are the main problems that they pose?
What to expect in the coming gravitational observations?
Detections of compact binary coalescences with Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo are now starting to become routine. However, thereis still considerably more information that can be gleaned from these observations, particularly as detector sensitivity and waveform modelsboth improve. We start by describing the methods currently used in LIGO/Virgo data analysis to determine the mass and spin of the remnant black hole of the binary black hole coalescences.
In general relativity, the effective-one-body (EOB) approach, which consists in reducing the two-body dynamics to the motion of a test particle in an effective static, spherically symmetric metric, has proven to be a very powerful framework to describe analytically the coalescence of compact binary systems.
Gravitational waves from the mergers of five binary black holes and one binary neutron star were detected in the past two years by the advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors. These detections allowed our Universe to be observed in gravitational waves for the first time, and they have tested the predictions of general relativity for dynamical and strongly gravitating systems. I will discuss these results and also highlight a few additional examples of ways in which gravitational waves can shed light on open questions in theoretical physics and astrophysics.
The observations of gravitational waves from coalescing compact binary systems allow us to test gravity in its strong field regime. In order to better constrain alternative theories of gravity, one has to build template waveforms for these theories. In this talk, I will present a post-Newtonian Lagrangian approach adapted to the specificities of scalar-tensor theories. I will derive the equations of motion of a compact binary system at 3PN order in harmonic coordinates. This result is primordial in order to compute the scalar and gravitational waveforms at 2PN order.
When two black holes merge, they 'ringdown' as they settle into a final Kerr black hole. The ringdown part of the gravitational wave signal probes the strong field gravity, enabling us to test the general theory of relativity (GR) in that regime. In this talk, I will focus on one particular challenge associated with the ringdown - "When does a ringdown start during a binary black hole merger?". Then I will end the talk with a brief summary of our prospects to perform GR tests with the ringdown signals using the current and future ground-based gravitational wave observatory.