This series consists of weekly discussion sessions on foundations of quantum Theory and quantum information theory. The sessions start with an informal exposition of an interesting topic, research result or important question in the field. Everyone is strongly encouraged to participate with questions and comments.
I will discuss a toy theory that reproduces a wide variety of qualitative features of quantum theory for degrees of freedom that are continuous. The ontology of the theory is that of classical particle mechanics, but it is assumed that there is a constraint on the amount of knowledge that an observer may have about the motional state of any collection of particles -- Liouville mechanics with an epistemic restriction. The formalism of the theory is determined by examining the consequences of this "classical uncertainty principle" on state preparations, measurements, and dynamics.
The amount of nonlocality in the GHZ state can be quantified by determining how much classical communication is required to bring a local-hidden-variable model into agreement with the predictions of quantum mechanics. It turns out that one bit suffices, and, of course, nothing less will do. I will discuss generalizations of this result to graph states and its relation to the stabilizer formalism.
Quantum information methods have been recently used for studying the properties of ground state entanglement in several many body and field theory systems. We will discuss a thought experiment wherein entanglement can be extracted from the vacuum of a relativistic field theory into a pair of arbitrarily spatially separated atoms. In order to simulate the detection process, we will consider the ground state of a linear chain of cooled trapped ions, and discuss a scheme for detecting the entanglement between the ion's motional degrees of freedom.
Asymptotic statements like the almost-equi-partition law, the theorm of Shannon Mc -Millan-Breiman, the theorem of Sanov have all natural quantum analogs. They all talk about the thermodynamik limit of quantum spin systems. I will try to summarize these results and sketch the main ideas of proof.
The information spectrum approach gives general formulae for optimal rates of codes in many areas of information theory. In this talk I shall relate the information spectrum approach to Shannon information theory and explore its relationship to ``entropic'' properties including subadditivity, chain rules, Araki-Lieb inequlities, and monotonicity.
We consider the problem of bounded-error quantum state identification: given one of two known states, what is the optimal probability with which we can identify the given state, subject to our guess being correct with high probability (but we are permitted to output "don't know" instead of a guess). We prove a direct product theorem for this problem. Our proof is based on semidefinite programming duality and the technique may be of wider interest. Using this result, we present two new exponential separations in the simultaneous message passing model of communication complexity.
A swashbuckling tale of greed, deception, and quantum data hiding on the high seas. When we hide or encrypt information, it's probably because that information is valuable. I present a novel approach to quantum data hiding based this assumption. An entangled treasure map marks the spot where a hoard of doubloons is buried, but the sailors sharing this map want all the treasure for themselves! How should they study their map using LOCC? This simple scenario yields a surprisingly rich and counterintuitive game theoretic structure.
will discuss how to realize, by means of non-abelian quantum holonomies, a set of universal quantum gates acting on decoherence-free subspaces and subsystems. In this manner the quantum coherence stabilization virtues of decoherence-free subspaces and the fault-tolerance of all-geometric holonomic control are brought together.
Bohrs Principle of Complementarity of wave and particle aspects of quantum systems has been a cornerstone of quantum mechanics since its inception. Einstein, Schrödinger and deBroglie vehemently disagreed with Bohr for decades, but were unable to point out the error in Bohrs arguments. I will report three recent experiments in which Complementarity fails, and argue that the results call for an upgrade of the Quantum Measurement theory. Finally, I will introduce the novel concept of Contextual Null Measurement (CNM) and discuss some of its surprising applications.