This series consists of talks in the areas of Particle Physics, High Energy Physics & Quantum Field Theory.
Over the last two years, the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector has been installed in the tunnel of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and commissioned to its full functionality. The CMS detector successfully collected beam halo and beam dump data, while the beams were circulating in the LHC in September 2008. After the LHC incident, the commissioning of CMS continued with a one month campaign of continuous cosmic rays data taking at nominal magnetic field. This allowed further tuning of the detector, consolidation of its operation and characterization of its performances.
The PAMELA satellite-borne experiment was launched from the Baikonur cosmodrome on the 15th of June 2006. It has been collecting data since July 2006. The instrument is composed of a silicon-microstrip magnetic spectrometer, a time-of-flight system, a silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter, an anticoincidence system, a shower tail counter scintillator and a neutron detector. The primary scientific goal is the measurement of the antiproton and positron energy spectrum in order to search for exotic sources, such as dark matter particle annihilations.
The warped geometry present in Randall-Sundrum (RS) models provides an elegant means by which to generate stable scale hierarchies. Given the famous hierarchy problem of the Standard Model, and the relatively small number of known mechanisms which may solve it, the RS model has deservedly received a lot of attention. However the construction of a completely realistic RS model remains difficult and requires a number of modifications beyond the minimal framework.
As LHC era is coming close, all sorts of ideas about physics beyond the standard model are being explored. It remains possible that a strong-coupling chiral theory could appear at TeV scale. When it comes to strongly coupled theories, lattice is still the most reliable and straightforward regularization method. But defining a chiral gauge theory on the lattice is formidable on its own. In this talk, I will present some most recent theoretical developments in attempt to tackle this problem, and explain some general theorems we proved for generic chiral gauge theories on lattice.
What does vacuum decay look like in an inflating, de Sitter, spacetime? Is it predominantly a quantum process of tunneling through the barrier, or a thermal process of tunneling over the barrier?
Recent experimental results seem to require a dramatic change in our view of the dark matter sector. In this talk I will describe the reasons for this change and the ingredients required to describe the new data. I will present possible field theories that give rise to such phenomena and delineate the resulting collider signatures.
Recent PAMELA and ATIC results may represent a breakthrough in dark matter searches beyond its gravitational imprint. After briefly reviewing the possible (classes of) explanations for the observed excesses in positron and electron cosmic ray fluxes I will focus on a two component dark matter model that may provide an explanation for large boost factors needed in the dark matter annihilation interpretation of the signals.
The interpretation of virtual gluons as ghosts in the non-linear gluonic structure of QCD permits the formulation and realization of a manifestly gauge-invariant and Lorentz covariant theory of interacting quarks/antiquarks, for all values of coupling.
Explorations of the possibility that the quark masses, and more generally the particle mass spectra, could be dynamically generated in the context of massless QCD will be presented. The basic idea is that the large degeneracy of the free massless QCD could lead to a large quark condensate and its corresponding mass. Under the presence of this very massive quark, the other five ones could acquire smaller masses as argued by Fritzsch in his Democratic Symmetry Breaking scheme.
How sure are you that spacetime is continuous? One of the more radical approaches to quantum gravity, causal set theory, models spacetime as a discrete structure: a causal set. Allowing the possibility that spacetime is discrete then how should we do physics on it? Carrying over the usual continuum descriptions in terms of differential equations seems like a difficult option. This talk begins with a brief introduction to causal sets then describes an approach to modelling the propagation of scalar particles on a causal set.